TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD

Chapter 1 WHO WAS VIKTOR SCHAUBERGER?

1.1 Viktor Schauberger-the Man

1.2 What happened in America

Chapter 2 ENERGY

2.1 Energy Today

2.2 Relative Energies

2.3 The Fateful Choice

2.4 But What is Energy?

Chapter 3 NEW DIMENSIONS OF ENERGY

3.1 Ur-Primordial Energy

3.2 Sound as a Formative Force

3.3 The Phenomenon of Resonance

3.4 The Creative Energy-Vortex

Chapter 4 WHAT IS MOTION?

4.1 The "Original" Motion

4.2 Forms of Motion

4.3 Thesis, Antithesis and

Synthesis

vi Chapter 6 EARTH'S ATMOSPHERIC ENVELOPE

6.1 The Atmosphere 87

6.2 The Terrestrial Bio-Condenser 89

1 6.3 The Development of Electricity 95 15 6.4 Storms, Water Vapour and Climate 99 Chapter 7 TEMPERATURE

7.1 Other Forms of Temperature 102 30 7.2 Temperature -Health and Disease 105 32 34 Chapter 8 36 THE NATURE OF WATER

8.1 Water - a Living Substance 107

8.2 The Anomaly Point of Water 111

8.3 Dielectrics and Electrolysis 111 39 8.4 Qualities of Water 114 42 8.5 The Temperature-Gradient 115 44 Chapter 9 48 THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

9.1 The Full Hydrological Cycle 118

9.2 The Half Hydrological Cycle 122

9.3 Temperature Gradients and 55 Nutrient Supply 125 56 Chapter 10

60

THE FORMATION OF SPRINGS

4.4 Phi or the "Golden Section" 65 10.1 Seepage and True Springs 129

4.5 Magnetism and Electricism 70 10.2 The Rising of Springwater 131

4.6 Other Dimensions of Energy

Chapter 5 THE SUN

74 10.3 Energy from the Deep Ocean 135 Chapter 11 FLOATING STONES AND THE STATIONARY TROUT

5.1 The Light and Temperature of the11.1 Floating Stones 139 Sun 77 11.2 The Stationary Trout 141

5.2 The Sun as a Fertilising Entity 82 11.3 Fishes from Eggs 144

THE LOG-FLUME 148

Chapter 13

THE DYNAMICS OF FLOW 13.1 Temperature Gradients during Flow 156

The Formation of Vortices 163

The Formation of Bends 166

The Geostrophic Effect on Flow 170

The Effects of Conventional River Engineering 174

Hydro-Electric Power 176

Chapter 14

WATER SUPPLY

The Wooden Water main 179

The Stuttgart Investigation 183

The Circulation of Blood 188

Chapter 15

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY 15.1 The Consequences of Chlorination and Fluoridation 193

The Springwater Producing Device 197

The Storage of Water 200

Chapter 16

TREES AND LIGHT 16.1 The Entity "Tree" 205

The Bio-Magnetic Tree 215

Tree Types 216

Trees - the Mirrors of Light 217

Photosynthesis 219

Why Growth occurs at the Extremities 221

Chapter 17 FORESTRY - A NOBLE OR IGNOBLE ART?

Contemporary Forestry 225

Monoculture 227

Light- and Shade-Demanding Trees 229

Light-Induced Growth 235

Other Man-made Depredations 237

Chapter 18

THE METABOLISM OF THE TREE 18.1 The Movement of Sap 240

Temperature Gradients in the Tree 245

The Tree as a Bio-condenser 248

Root Systems 252

Chapter 19

AGRICULTURE AND SOIL FERTILITY 19.1 The 'Golden Plough' 256

Sun Ploughing 260

Of Cows and Scythes 260

The Pernicious Effects of Artificial Fertilisers 262

Biological Agriculture 264

Chapter 20

THE GENERATION OF FRUCTIGENIC ENERGIES 270

Chapter 21

IMPLOSION

The Biological Vacuum 276

The Repulsator 278

The Repulsine 280

The Implosion Motor 281

The Trout Motor and the Biotechnical Submarine 285

The Klimator 287

The Flying Saucer 288

Chapter 22

LAST THOUGHTS 295

GLOSSARY 301

BIBLIOGRAPHY 305

ABOUT THE AUTHOR 306

INDEX 307

FOREWORD

t is very difficult to observe the extraordi-

nary creativity and fruitfulness of Nature

without a sense of wonder. But wonder is at

odds with reason. It has been said that

humanity's schism with Nature was contrived

so that we could develop our sense of reason

to the extent that we now experience. One of

the outcomes of this, because they are preoc-

cupied with physical form, is that our contem

porary biological sciences seem to believe that

this munificent fecundity of Nature 'just hap

pens'. Viktor Schauberger's vision was that

this 'happening' is the result of a complex

interaction of subtle energies, a process that is

initiated and sustained from what he called

the 4th and 5th dimensions of Being.

Viktor Schauberger was a man who was undoubtedly inspired by more exalted levels of reality and meaning than most of us experi- ence. His great gift was to be able to show how it is the finer and 'higher' energies that are responsible for creating form and structure, not the other way round as contemporary science would suggest. The story of his life is tragic at a personal level, for he was constantly ridiculed, because of the vested interests of science for whom he was a threat. He died a broken man when he saw that the gift he wanted to make was corrupted by the power- ful for material gain. His prophetic vision was that humanity was bound for self-annihilation if steps were not immediately taken to change course. In a real sense we have had to see many of his specific prophecies come true before we were ready to take him seriously.

Schauberger died in 1958. Why has it taken so long before a book could be pub-

VI

lished that is so vital to the salvation of humanity? Part of the answer lies in history. When Austria was absorbed by Nazi Germany in 1938 there was a cultural meld- ing. Viktor Schauberger was an Austrian, as was Hitler, who saw that this remarkable inventor could be valuable to his cause. Although Viktor was coerced to work for the Third Reich, he has inevitably been associated with it. Postwar German consciousness, being anxious to distance itself from the Hitler period, could not then easily embrace Schauberger's vision.

It took a Swedish engineer inspired by the vision of Rudolf Steiner to rescue Viktor Schauberger from oblivion in 1976. Steiner and Schauberger were contemporaries, and it is tempting to believe that they were both inspired by a similar source of profound wis- dom of universal meaning. They had some lengthy discussions, and one wonders how much common ground they found!

This Swedish engineer's book was published by a small publisher better known for its music publishing. I heard of Olof Alexandersson's Det Levande Vattnet in 1979 from some Swedish-speaking British friends. I do not read Swedish, and so could not make a 'rational' assessment of the book. But as some- times happens in publishing, I had a 'hunch' this book was important, and that it must be translated into English and published widely.

My previous company, Turnstone Press, in 1982 published Living Water which is a popular introduction to Viktor Schauberger, the man and his mission. This lovely little book has since gone through five reprints and

Foreword vii

this caused a strong demand for an authorita- tive book on Viktor Schauberger's practical ideas for working with Nature, rather than against her, as we currently do. Clearly Schauberger's time has come, as millions of people all over the world realise that we are dangerously off-course. It was when I was preparing Living Water for press that Callum Coats came into my life. Through his mother Callum met Viktor's physicist son, Walter Schauberger in 1977 and, sensing that his future work lay here, began an intensive study of Schauberger theory. In 1981 Callum helped edit the translation of Living Water, during which he confided with me his ambition to write a definitive work on Viktor Schauberger. This was to prove a much more ambitious task than he anticipated, and he has devoted all his resources and energy for over 15 years to this end. It is a remarkable body of research, and Callum undertook to replicate some of the experiments. A crucial part of the process was to spend three years with Walter's Pythagoras-Kepler-System Institute at Lauffen in the Salzkammergut near Salzburg. Walter has now passed on, but the Schauberger family has cooperated with Callum in helping this book be born, as with its companion work Eco-technology, Viktor Schauberger's own writings in three volumes, which Callum has compiled and translated. Some thoughts on how to approach this book. Callum and I talked about how to arrange the text of Living Energies. As the publisher, I did not want readers to be put off early in the book by a discussion of energy and motion. Callum, persuaded me that the more popular material - about water as the life-blood of the Earth, and how we need to cherish it, and about the magic of trees and the biomass of the Earth - can really only be appreciated with some understanding of what is energy. However, if you do find the discussion of energy and motion (for energy is motion) daunting, my suggestion is that you skip to a later chapter to get the sense of our lost inheritance. You can always return to put in the theory later. I suspect, in any case, that this is not a book that most will read through in one swoop. Rather it is an inspired fountain of wisdom to be dipped into, here and there, for many a season. Another hint, I was finding the chapter on energy hard going until I read it on an Orkney beach. Surrounding yourself with nature makes the ideas come alive!

Schauberger, in common with other pioneers of radical thinking, realised that words carry associations. Therefore, in order to wean people away from a conventional word which is often inadequate for the task, it is sometimes appropriate to coin a new word, to allow their imaginations to grasp a more inclusive or specific concept or idea. This is especially relevant for the subtle energies which are responsible for the interaction of all creation and the incredible abundance and fecundity of Nature. We have tried to cross-reference these in the text, and there is a glossary in the back of the book.

Viktor Schauberger, besides being an impeccable observer of Nature, was also an inventor who saw how the practical applica- tion of his ideas could transform our society. Just as other visionaries have heard the har- mony of the Universe as 'The Music of the Spheres', so Viktor Schauberger saw the symmetry of all creation in terms of sacred geom- etry. Inevitably this requires a modicum of mathematics in the text. But to show that it is not necessary for an appreciation of Schauberger's ecological understanding, we have, where possible, extracted the more theoretical material into boxes. So, if you are daunted by mathematical symbols, don't be dismayed, for you will still find most of the text inspiring and enthralling.

Living Energies may become the catalyst for re-writing all the textbooks of science and the manuals of politics and planning. It shows how humanity can take its place as the responsible guardians of a very precious centre of life in the Universe. We see this as required reading for anyone planning to participate in the next century. It is a guide to the new millennium! Alick Bartholomew, Wellow, September 1995.

vii

Viktor Schauberger

Born: 30th June 1885

Holzschlag 2,Pfarramt Ulrichsberg,Upper Austria.

Died: 25th September 1958Linz, Upper Austria.

1 WHO WAS VIKTOR SCHAUBERGER?

1.1 Viktor Schauberger - The Man

hroughout recorded history humanity has been periodically uplifted by the contributions of a few gifted andenlightened individuals, whose teachings and philosophy have gradually raised the level of human awareness; the Buddha, Jesus Christ and the Prophet Mohammed being the most familiar examples of how a single individual can produce far-reaching changes in the consciousness of humanity. Lesser mortals have also played a vital role in this process and the seeding of human conscious- ness with higher truths always seems to come at a time when humankind as a whole is ready to receive them.

It is sometimes said that these great teach- ers, themselves ardent students of Nature and the Divine, lived ahead of their time. At first view this would appear to be true, but on further reflection it becomes apparent that they lived precisely when they should have, for otherwise they could not have provided the vision or the direction neces- sary for humanity's upward evolution and progress. In most instances a signpost is long forgotten and unheeded if it lies behind, and to be of any use it must of necessity stand out ahead in order to indicate the new way. Many such human signposts have punc- tuated the passage of humanity's progress, but have received recognition for their great contribution only long after their own passing.

These exceptional individuals are indeed visionaries in the truest sense of the word, for they are endowed with a far higher sense of perception than their contemporaries. For their work an enormous dedication and courage is necessary. Historically, and Viktor Schauberger was no exception, the lives suchindividuals have led have been dogged with confrontation, difficulty, doubt and the great loneliness of the path-finder, or the individual who stands alone far out in front on evo-lution's upward way. As pioneers, apart from breaking new ground, they also suffer great adversity in their encounters with the powerful opposition of those whose interests and beliefs are rigidly immured in the cur- rent status quo.

Such great leading lights as Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei, come to mind who devoted their whole lives to the understanding of the universe and the raising of human consciousness. In the main they were only permitted a view into their Promised Land, a vista over the unfolding of their life's work, but almost without exception had to forgo the passage into the new and the reaping of the fruits of their travails. Denied any recognition for their contribu- tion, their end was often clothed in misery and penury, as though the gods would exact from them the very last ounce of personal surrender. Many of these enlightened indi- viduals died alone, unloved, unwanted and unsung.

Kepler was reduced to total insolvency and, although owed a considerable sum for his services by the Duke of Regensburg, he died a pauper and was buried in a common grave outside hallowed ground, for he, like

1

his contemporary Galileo, had dared to question the authority of the Church. To this day no-one knows where Kepler's body lies. He too had had a vision and, through his meticulous study of the movement of the planets, produced his great work, Harmonices Mundi, "The Harmonies of the World". Having finally completed it in 1618, he dedicated it to James I of England, declaring thatnow that he had discovered the harmonious qualities and proportions of all things, there would no longer be the need for human conflict. Kepler's opus had barely been pub- lished when the Thirty Years' War broke out, thoroughly obscuring and interring all his endeavours. This happened as a result of the so-called 'Defenestration of Prague' in which on May 21st, 1618 the envoys of the Austrian Kaiser were hurled from the windows of the Great Hall.

Mozart, who took music, its resonances and harmonies to new heights, also suffered a similar fate - oblivion at the age of 35 and burial in a common grave. Max Planck, the great physicist who brought an end to the purely materialistic world view of the late 19th century with his quantum theory in December 1900, was another who, bereft of adequate clothing, food or other means of support, died alone in extreme poverty and cold.

Viktor Schauberger's life followed a path similar to those of his illumined predeces- sors, for in his life too he was met with derision, slander and deceit in a long confrontation with the Establishment in its various forms. He was a man of enormous strength of purpose; he was warm and encouraging, particularly to young people in whom he took a great interest, for he saw in them the possibility for the restoration of a secure and bountiful future. But to those whose view of life he considered irretriev- ably perverted spiritually and intellectually, he was absolutely uncompromising, seeing them as obstacles on the path of human evolution and in the rehabilitation of the environment.

Naturally he made many enemies in the process, but on the other hand a certain bal- ance was achieved by a very few encouraging and loyal friends such as Prof. Philipp Forchheimer, a hydrologist of world repute. Another was Prof. Werner Zimmermann, a Swiss, who published arti- cles by Viktor in his ecologically oriented magazine Tau between 1935 and 1937. Werner Zimmermann frequently entered the lists in Viktor's defence against the narrow- minded, self-interested attacks of academia and entrenched bureaucracy, which on occasion were very intense. More often than not Viktor's discoveries totally contradicted established theory and in their flawless functioning and practical implementation seriously threatened the credibility and reputation of scientist and bureaucrat alike.

There are many more such individuals who have given themselves wholly to the betterment of their fellow human beings. Without exception they were endowed with extraordinary perceptive and intuitive abili- ties, which afforded them fresh insights into the way in which the world functioned, enabling them to understand phenomena hitherto inexplicable to their contemporaries. They were aware of another dimension of reality, that 'Dimension of Comprehension' which makes sense of the whole - just as the 3rd dimension makes a two-dimensional world understandable.

Some of these great teachers were born with this ability, while others fought long and hard external and personal battles to acquire it, their struggles fraught with hardship and ridden with disappointment. Often assailed by doubt, they nevertheless courageously persevered, urged ever onward to finish the task they had set themselves to complete. If ever there was a true exponent of the person described in Rudyard Kipling's poem If1, it was Viktor Schauberger.

He was one of those rare human beings, those explorers in human thought and endeavour, whose chosen path was to throw light on the future. It is therefore inevitable that he too will eventually take his place amongst the ranks of these exalted, self- sacrificing beings. In the years to come he will be acknowledged as one of the principal

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 3

guiding spirits of the 21st century and beyond, who brought about a fundamental shift of Copernican proportions in human-kind's appreciation of Nature and natural energies.There can be very few of his contempo- raries whose comprehension of the sublime energetic interdependencies, upon which life at all its levels is founded, was so profound, Nor, apparently, has any other person had Viktor's deep understanding of that living substance so vital to all life processes - water, which he viewed as the blood of Mother-Earth, for like Sir James Lovelock, the originator of the Gaia hypothesis2, Viktor too saw the whole Earth as an organism and expressed this view in his early writings of the 1930s.

Viktor Schauberger was born on June 30th, 1885 in the parish of Ulrichsberg, in Upper Austria. He was descended from a long line of foresters, who had devoted their whole lives to the natural management and administration of the forest, a dedication mirrored in their family motto, 'Fidus in silvis silentibus' or 'Faith in the silent forests'. With this as his background and much against hisfather's will, but with the support of his mother, at the age of 18 he flatly refused to follow in the footsteps of his two elder broth-ers and attend university, having seen how it had affected his brothers' thinking. Apart from his earnest desire to become a forester, the main reason for his refusal was that he did not wish to have his natural way of thinking corrupted by people he considered totally alienated to Nature. He did not want to be forced to see things through other jaun- diced eyes, but through his own. For, as he later wrote:

The only possible outcome of the purely categorizing compart-mentality, thrust upon us at school, is the loss of our creativity. People are los- ing their individuality, their ability to see things as they really are and thereby their connection with Nature. They are fast approaching a state of equilibrium impossible in Nature, which must force them into a total economic collapse, for no stable system of equilibrium exists. Therefore the principles upon which our actions are founded are invalid, because they operate within parame- ters that do not exist.

Our work is the embodiment of our will. The spiritual manifestation of this work is its effect. When such work is done properly, it brings happiness, but when carried out incorrectly, it assuredly brings misery.3

Taking his mother's advice and following his natural instincts, Viktor became a junior forest warden, spending the next few years often in areas of remote forest. There he was able to perceive movements of energy and natural phenomena in Nature's own labora- tory, because in Austria in the early part of this century, circa 1900-1915, there were large tracts of forest still untouched by human hand. After the 1914-1918 war in which he was wounded, Viktor returned to forestry, eventually entering the employ of Prince Adolph zu Schaumburg-Lippe, the owner of a large hunting and forestry reserve in Steyrling.

In these districts there had been no interference in the balance of Nature and Viktor was thus able to observe events that are today inconceivable, and which no longer take place because of the enormous deterioration of the environment. It was here that he acquired the insights into the natural movement of water that resulted in the building of his first log flume, which will be described in detail in chapter 12. Here too he first became aware of other levitational energies inherent in water, for one day in the middle of a very cold winter, as he was about to cross over a fast-flowing mountain stream, he flushed a stationary trout from its lair as he sought a firm hold for his staff on the stream bed. Its lightning flash upstream immediately caused a number of questions to race through his mind:

How did the trout actually manage to get to this spot - and later I saw dozens of them in the same stream - which was cut off by a 60 metre high waterfall about a kilometre downstream, where the water was atomised into a veil of mist?

How was it able to flee upstream like a streak of greased lightning in mockery of all the laws of gravity?

How was it possible for this fish to stand so motionlessly, only steering itself with slight movements of its tail-fins, in this wildly torrential flow, which made my staff shake so much that I could hardly hang onto it?

What forces enabled the trout to overcome its own body-weight so effortlessly and quickly and at the same time overcome the specific weight of the heavy water flowing against it?

Why didn't the water freeze even during peri- ods of severe frost with temperatures below -30oC?4

While Viktor undoubtedly had an especial talent for observation, a penetratingpower of perception undimmed by preconceptions, he also developed what might be called an active consciousness, an ability to go beyond the merely visual in search of what lay behind a given phenomenon. This taught him a great deal and how this ability gradually evolved, he explained as follows:

The Schaubergers' principal preoccupation was directed towards the conservation of the forest and wild game, and even in earliest youth my fondest desire was to understand Nature, and through such understanding to come closer to the truth; a truth that I was unable to discover either at school or in church.

In this quest I was thus drawn time and time again up into the forest. I could sit for hours on end and watch the water flowing by without ever becoming tired or bored. At the time I was still unaware that in water the greatest secret lay hid- den. Nor did I know that water was the carrier of life or the ur-source5 of what we call consciousness. Without any preconceptions, I simply let my gaze fall on the water as it flowed past. It was only years later that I came to realise that run- ning water attracts our consciousnesses like a magnet and draws a small part of it along in its wake. It is a force that can act so powerfully that one temporarily loses one's consciousness and involuntarily falls asleep.

As time passed I began to play a game with water's secret powers; I surrendered my so-called free consciousness and allowed the water to take possession of it for a while. Little by little this game turned into a profoundly earnest endeavour, because I realised that one could detach one's own consciousness from the body and attach it to that of the water.

When my own consciousness was eventually returned to me, then the water's most deeply concealed psyche often revealed the most extraordinary things to me. As a result of this investigation, a researcher was born who could dispatch his consciousness on a voyage of discovery, as it were. In this way I was able to experi- ence things that had escaped other people's notice, because they were unaware that a human being is able to send forth his free consciousness into those places the eyes cannot see.

By practising this blindfolded vision, I eventu- ally developed a bond with mysterious Nature, whose essential being I then slowly learnt to perceive and understand.6

It is very interesting to compare this with a statement taken from The Urga Manuscript7, which is the record of a letter by Do-Ring, a scholar and scribe to the Panchen Lama, written in the early 1920s to his friend, Wing On concerning the inner life and describing the functions and phases of spiritual evolution.

It [the 6th function] is the one in which the ini- tiate is given the power of sending his intellect or conscious mind right away from his body, direct- ing it to any part of the material earth he desires it to visit, and then recalling it still conscious of all that it has seen.8

Truly the intellect, or that part of life that sees and records its observations, can and does leave the body and travel great distances, observe detail at those distances and return, giving to the mind as a whole an accurate picture of where it has been and what it has seen. This function occurs at the immeasurable will and is preceded by a short, deep meditation.9

These perceptions of truth presented Viktor with considerable problems in translating them into everyday language, for when it comes to transferring spiritual imagery into mundane word-pictures - regrettably still the only means of human communication - enormous difficulties are encountered due to the limitation of language. While all languages are in a constant state of evolution or devolution, the words and terminology at

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger?

any given moment are a reflection of the current state of conceptual awareness. Thus for someone who is 'ahead' of his time, generally speaking the conceptual framework of language does not necessarily extend to the clear and unequivocal explanation of new

concepts for which new acceptable words may have to be coined. n many instances therefore, when he came to describe these phenomena, Viktor uses not the conventional terminology of physics, chemistry or biology, etc., but his own words. In this he was greatly assisted by the struc- ture of the German language, which facilitates the formation of new concepts through additive nouns. Despite this and for lack of suitable technical vocabulary, their interpre- tation and comprehension is still sometimes extremely difficult, which in his writings he freely admitted, "Few will understand the meaning of the above! Some individuals, however, will obtain an indefinable inkling."10

In an attempt at clearer explanation he did eventually study these subjects on his own in order to acquaint himself with their respec- tive terminologies. However, in his writings they are often used merely as indicators of the theme under discussion and therefore cannot always be taken literally.

Water, forests, natural energies and their generation were ever his passionate concern. In our present way of looking at things he would probably be considered one of the world's first 'greenies'; Dr. Richard St. Barbe Baker, founder of 'The Men of the Trees' in 1922, and Viktor's friend, being another.

Viktor had tremendous foresight and an enormous capacity for writing, reputedly having composed many, many thousands of pages. At times, apparently in a trance-like state, he wrote for hours on his typewriter with no idea of what he had written until finally reading it at the end. Amongst other things, he set down all that he saw would inevitably happen, if we did not mend our ways and change our whole approach to the environment, both technologically and conceptually. All the various crises that are today engulfing humanity, he foresaw as long ago as 1930. When questioned on the accuracy of his predictions, he answered

very simply, saying that, "For a person who lives 100 years in the future, the present is no surprise."11

In the late 1920s as a result of the suc- cessful operation of Viktor's Steyrling log-flume, Prof.Philipp Forchheimer was asked by the Austrian Government to investigate Viktor's unusual theories. Through their collaboration, Forchheimer gradually became aware of the truth of Viktor's ideas, eventu- ally insisting that Viktor put all his discoveries down on paper, saying that he thought Viktor's theories were not only valid, but extremely valuable. Forchheimer later con- fided that he was delighted to have retired, because he would now be relieved of the humiliating task of telling his students that he had been teaching them rubbish for the previous forty-five years.

With the cooperation of Prof. Wilhelm Exner, President of the Austrian Academy of Science and inventor of the Exner electroscope, a treatise of Viktor Schauberger's entitled "Turbulence", which described the braking function of vortices and their rela- tion to water temperature, was placed under seal and on deposit at the Austrian Academy of Science on January 1st, 1930. This was done, not only to ensure the precedence of Viktor Schauberger's theories on water movement, but also to safeguard them for some time in the future. While stressing its value, Forchheimer considered there to be no point in publishing it at the time, because the hydrological world was not ready. The science of hydraulics would first have to change its values and way of thinking before these trail-breaking concepts could be taken seriously. It wasn't until 1974 that this docu- ment was released to Viktor's son, Walter Schauberger.

Forchheimer did change his views later, however, and saw to it that Viktor's pioneering theories on temperature and its effect on the movement of water were published in 1930-31 in a series of articles in Die Wasserwirtschaft, the Austrian Journal of Hydrology. This showed Forchheimer to be all that a true scientist should be, and rarely is. It demonstrated the honesty and humility of a sincere academic who was prepared to

accept that his former ideas had been wrong and that current thinking could be changed; that there was another way of looking at things.

Viktor's aim was always to try to perceive the dynamic reality behind what he saw as physical illusion. He claimed, and rightly so, that by and large we human beings are extremely superficial, looking for and only seeing direct relations between cause and effect, whereas Nature always moves indi- rectly. But worse than this, in our ignorance of the unseen dynamic behind the seen manifestation, we mistake the effect for the cause, greatly compounding this error by failing to see that an effect becomes the cause for a fur- ther effect in an endless chain of causes and effects. In this regard Viktor comments:

Our thinking is inconsistent with what we actu- ally see. The eye is a perfect, natural organ. The seen image is a reaction phenomenon. Using an artificial optical apparatus the same effect, for example, can only be obtained by a roundabout way, by means of a negative. The eye, on the other hand, immediately presents us with the diapositive, namely the true image.

Our sight constitutes an unconscious, auto- matic transformation process, whereby the nega- tive image - like a photographic negative - i.e. the effect, is transformed into a positive one, like a diapositive colour slide. Our thinking, however, is really a purely individual, conscious process and therefore learnable. If our thinking is to attain the same perfection as our seeing, then we must change our way of thinking and learn to see real- ity, not as an action, but as a reaction. Perfect thought lies in the apprehension of the correct reaction, for before the eye can show us the posi- tive, it must first transform the negative and in a certain manner must break up what it records. What we see, therefore, is the turning inside out of what we receive. What our mind grasps in this way must be re-formed and re-thought if we wish to attain that for which we strive.2

Our direct mental approach towards the understanding and investigation of natural phenomena; our present materialistic and scientifically ingrained view that only the physically palpable and measurable repre- sents the true reality, has lead to greater and greater confusion and the necessity to elabo- rate more and more complex theories to explain the various functions of the physical world. Our great omission has been our total disregard and our failure to come to grips in depth with the more ephemeral, unseen, yet fundamental energetic causalities. Like the negative mentioned in the quotation above, these energies manifest themselves only indirectly, the physical constructs of the outer physical world being a positive reflec- tion of their respective functions. What we perceive as the foundation of physical reality - a reality to which we have ascribed laws - is therefore only half of the truth, for in their dynamic these formative magnitudes con- form to a sublime inner law of energetic reci- procities which will be discussed more fully in chapters 3 and 4, and about whose mutual interaction Viktor commented:

Nature is not served by rigid laws, but by rhythmical, reciprocal processes. Nature uses none of the preconditions of the chemist or the physicist for the purposes of evolution. Nature excludes all fire on principle for purposes of growth; therefore all contemporary machines are unnatural and constructed according to false premises. Nature avails herself of the biodynamic form of motion through which the biological prerequisite for the emergence of life is provided. Its purpose is to ur-procreate higher' conditions of matter out of the originally inferior raw materials, which afford the evolutionally older, or the numerically greater rising gener- ation, the possibility of a constant capacity to evolve, for without any growing and increasing reserves of energy there would be no evolution or development. This results first and foremost in the collapse of the so-called Law of the Conservation of Energy, and in further consequence the Law of Gravity, and all other dogmatics lose any rational or practical basis.13

In Viktor's view Western science and educa- tion generally left much to be desired. Our civilisation suffered from a myopic compart- mentalisation of the mind, which prevented a detached overview, a synthesis of what was observed:

Today's science thinks too primitively; indeed it could be said that its thinking is an octave too

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger?

low. It has still not ventured far enough into the realm of energy, and its attitude has remained purely materialistic. For this reason it is princi- pally to blame for the state of affairs we are expe- riencing today. In all probability, this development was necessary, for how else should a misguided humanity perceive the true interde-pendencies?14

Without doubt, therefore, there is a definite intention to teach young people upside-down methods of working with which they have to mis-earn their daily bread. That is to say, instead of moving forwards, they go backwards all the more rapidly in step with the improvements in the contrary methods of motion. For only thus can today's teaching principles flourish.15

In contrast to contemporary science, Viktor saw will and spirit as the principal causative forces of physical existence. They deploy themselves through the agency of various lower orders and magnitudes of energy belonging to the 4th and 5th dimensions, i.e. through those more subtle, non-spacial dimensions of being that are inherent, but are not perceived in the three dimensional world to which we are accustomed. Of ethereal nature and endowed with very high frequencies and formative potencies, they could also be termed 'potentialities', which in their extremely sensitive and unstable state of energetic equilibrium await the right stimulus and occasion to manifest them- selves. In being able to speak of these higher and therefore more powerfully and pro- foundly structuring dimensions of reality, Viktor's own comprehension of them must have been at the level of the 6th dimension, a level where the encapsulation and under- standing of a given concept or phenomenon is both simultaneous and total. Perhaps this might be termed the dimension of 'throughth' or pure truth, a crystal-clear transparency, a complete comprehension of the wholeness devoid of all uncertainty and unclarity.

From 1930-1933 Viktor Schauberger worked with systems for water regeneration and the production of high-qual- ity drinking water for which patents were applied in 1934 (see fig. 15.2). This rather cumbersome prototype was later followed by an egg-shaped device which was much smaller and far more efficient. When tested to its extreme power, however, it developed such powerful internal suction that even mercury seals (of extremely densely packed molecular structure) were unable to withstand the enormous suction generated and leaked into the water undergoing treatment. Despite the fact that this leakage occurred only when extremely high vacuum effects were present, which were absent under nor- mal conditions of operation, the Government argued through its consultant Professor Diering that the public could not be exposed to the hazard of mercury poisoning. Laying heavy emphasis on this, all further use of the machine for the regeneration and production of spring-quality water and super-distilled water was forbidden. Indeed Viktor Schau-berger's machine had evidently offended somebody in high places, for it was confiscated and destroyed by the Austrian police.

Always a thorn in the side of scientific and government institutions, Viktor's long battle to save both the Rhine and the Danube from total ruin was ultimately lost through their rejection of his practical suggestions. In early 1932 he wrote a paper about the rehabilita- tion of the Danube detailing the measuresthat needed to be taken in order to reinstate it as the magnificent river it had been in days of yore. This paper was included as a sepa- rate chapter in "The Danube", a study undertaken by the International Danube Commission and consisting of submissions from the Danube's various contiguous coun- tries.

When officialdom discovered with horror that Viktor's contribution had been incorpo- rated into this major work, the whole edition was recalled, destroyed and republished in October 1932 omitting the offending article, disregarding the publishing costs of the orig- inal edition which amounted to over 100,000 schillings - a very large sum at the time. All this happened largely due to the actions of Viktor Schauberger's implacable antagonist Dr.Ehrenberger, who hounded him wherever he went. This eventually provoked a sharp response from Viktor Schauberger largely in the form of a letter containing twenty-nine questions of which the following are representative:

Are you aware that, before a large assembly of university professors in the lecture rooms of the Technical University for Agricultural Science, Prof. Dr. Forchheimer was able to demonstrate on the blackboard that water temperature plays not only an important, but actually the principal role in the movement of water?

Are you aware that Prof. Dr. Forscheimer urged me to publish these observations in the Wasserwirtschaft and that the Professor himself saw to it that my articles were accepted for publication?

Are you aware that the river engineering departments of Vienna, Linz, Pragarten and Bregenz, the Chairs for Hydraulic Engineering in Danzig and other places demanded the imme- diate withdrawal of these articles otherwise they would officially cancel their subscriptions to this scientific journal?

Are you aware that over 100 academics jointly resolved not to permit my presence in government service and to enforce my dismissal?

Are you aware that with the encouragement of Assistant Secretary, Engineer Kober I stated my preparedness to explain the principles of my system of river regulation publicly at the Technical University for Agricultural Science?

Are you aware that this lecture was cancelled at the last minute by the Rector, Dr. Olbrich?

Are you aware this professor publicly declared before witnesses, that this event was the darkest episode of his whole period as rector?

Are you aware the Federal Austrian Forestry Department had to pay A. Sch. 5,000 per 1,000 logs after I was able to prove that I could trans- port this timber over a distance of 30km in a wild, unruly watercourse simply with the aid of temperatures and that the competent authorities were unable to raft one log even 50 metres?

Are you aware that your articles created great difficulties for me in the German Patent Office, because there I was apparently held to be a liar and a swindler?

Are you aware that I have entered into negotia- tions with the widest variety of Foreign Ministers and that on each occasion the negotiations were always broken off at the last minute due to the receipt of untrue information?

Are you aware that I was invited by His Majesty the King of Bulgaria and that there too similar slanderous material was sent from Vienna?

Are you aware that Mr. Werner Zimmermann has also been warned repeatedly never to have anything more to do with me?16

Whatever might have been thought of Viktor Schauberger in Austria, word of his abilities and the statements contained in his then recent book, Our Senseless Toil - the Source of the World Crisis17, evidently reached others ears including those of Adolf Hitler. At a time when the relations between Austria and Germany were at an all-time low, Viktor Schauberger was summoned to an audience with the Reichschancellor in Berlin. Special papers were arranged and all the documen- tation carried out within one day. Suddenly Viktor Schauberger left for Berlin and a meeting with Hitler, who greeted him warmly as a fellow countryman, telling him that he had studied all the reports about Viktor's work thoroughly and was very impressed with what he had learned.

Thirty minutes had been allocated for the discussions, which Prof. Max Planck had been requested to attend as scientific adviser shortly before he was rudely deposed from his position as Privy Councillor. This exchange of views eventually lasted 1 1/2 hours, during which Schauberger explained the destructive action of contemporary tech- nology and its inevitable consequences. He contrasted this with all the processes of nat- ural motion and temperature, of the vital relation between trees, water and soil pro- ductivity, indeed all the things he considered had to be thoroughly understood and prac- tised in order to create a sustainable and viable society.

When Viktor had finished his explana-tions, Max Planck, who had remained silent, was asked his opinion about Viktor's natural theories. His response was the remarkable and revealing statement that "Science has nothing to do with Nature".18 Pausing for a moment to take in this astonishing admis

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger?

sion, Viktor then referred to the proposed four-year plan, the so-called Goering Plan, seating that not only was the time frame was far too short, but if instituted it would grad- ually undermine and ultimately destroy Germany's biological foundations. As a result, the Third Reich would last only ten instead of the boasted 1,000 years. (Viktor was not far out in his estimate!) During the earlier part of the discussion, Hitler had been enthusiastic, but he became greatly perturbed at what he had just heard and ordered his technical and economic advisers, Messrs. Keppler and Wiluhn, to discuss with Schauberger what could be done. Once outside the door these two men demanded to know how Viktor had got in there in the first place. Angered at their tru- culently condescending air, he replied "Through the same door I've just come out of!" Seeing that his ideas had no hope of acceptance, and leaving them gaping, he returned to his hotel and left for Austria the following morning. Keppler and Wiluhn, however, were to get their revenge later after the Anschluss on March 13th, 1938.

In Vienna later that year, at one moment while taking tea with Mrs Mada Primavesi, a

well-known figure in the upper echelons of society, Viktor excused himself saying that he would be away for about twenty minutes for a routine medical examination of his First World War wounds at the nearby Vienna University clinic, to assess his eligibility for a continuing war pension. When he did not return, and furious at being so rudely deserted, Mrs Primavesi set out to find him. Fuming, she went to where he lived, and being told by his wife that he had not returned and that it was quite unlike him to behave in such a way, she then went to the clinic. Collaring the director, Professor Polzl, whom she knew well, she refused to leave until Viktor had been found and eventually found where he was - in the section reserved for lunatics. He was lying quietly on a bed trussed in a straitjacket waiting for the lethal injection, which was then the standard procedure in the Third Reich for the removal of the mentally insane and other 'undesirables'. Viktor's guardian angels must have been very alert, for despite his status as persona non grata in the Third Reich, he somehow always managed to survive.

Despite the new order after the Anschluss and the Sword of Damocles now hanging over his head, by now hardened to setbacks and with indomitable courage and a mind never still for a moment, Viktor quietly con- tinued his research. His main drive was to investigate phenomena and correlations that interested him. Once he had discovered that something worked, he noted the fact, and then got on with the next project. He was never very interested in commercialising his discoveries.

As ever he pursued ways of generating energy with water through the interaction of complementary, but opposite, forms of energy, i.e. heat and cold, electricity and magnetism, and centrifugence and centripe- tence, both aspects of which combine to cre- ate a unity, a wholeness through their synthesising, reciprocal interaction. Viktor also saw that suction and pressure could be used in similar fashion on the same axis to produce a powerful propulsive effect. In 1936 he successfully applied for patents for an air-turbine, which made use of a centripetal 'compressor' and rifled central exhaust pipe (Austrian patent no. 145141). This was followed by further patent applications in which this concept was improved. Although all trace of them has since beenlost, the device described in these later patents was not only able to convert sea water into fresh water, but could also be exploited to power aircraft and submarines. Yet once again Viktor was the victim of deceit and his ideas were usurped. In documents dated 1941, he describes how Professor Ernst Heinkel, the designer of the first successful jet-plane (first flight 27 Aug.

1939 - fig. 1.1), had illegally obtained sight of Viktor's preliminary applications at the Patent Office in Berlin through his patent attorneys, Lehmann-Harlens. Having studied them carefully, Heinkel then expressed his disinterest in them, but immediately inaugurated a covert research programme using this information in modified form to improve the performance of his 1,000 kph fighter, most probably the He 280. This was an indictable infringement of Viktor's still confidential application. Wishing to avoid discovery and in order to continue to make use of the unlawfully obtained data, Heinkel fraudulently attempted to have Viktor's patent restricted to the conversion of sea water into fresh water only, by having its application to aircraft and submarine propulsion disallowed. Continuing his undercover experiments all the while, but without success due to lack of proper understanding, Heinkel, with a certain absence of ethical principle, then sought Viktor's collaboration in the project. Although some initial discussion eventually took place, Viktor did not cooperate, having become aware of the facts of the matter, and further contact between the two men ceased. Using his ill-gotten gains and keeping all the kudos for himself, however, Heinkel persevered with his research, which, as a direct result of the application of Viktor's theories, finally culminated in a much improved turbine. In the light of this Viktor Schauberger, in company with others, such as Sir Frank Whittle, inventor of the English jet engine, could also be viewed as an early contributor to the present jet-age. Indeed, in terms of aircraft design, he even went as far as to state that in order to develop and build fast-flying, supersonic aircraft successfully, the bodily forms of deep-sea fish should be copied. Today's 'stealth bombers' very much emulate these forms (fig. 1.2).

In 1939 Viktor's personal research virtually came to an end, all the materials he needed being appropriated for war production. In 1941, however, he was summoned by Air Marshal Ernst Udet to discuss the growing crisis of energy production and means of solving it. Premises were subse

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 11

quently set up near Augsburg for research and development, all of which came to nothing partly due to the death of Udet and partly because it was bombed by the Allies

in 1942.

In 1943, despite his incapacitating war wounds and 58 years of age, Viktor was declared fit for active duty and was inducted into the Waffen-SS, very much under duress. He came under the control of Heinrich Himmler, who forced him into research to develop a new secret weapon. Provided with suitable accommodation at Schloss Schonbrunn, the nearby Mauthausen Concentration Camp to supply the workforce of prisoner engineers, Viktor was threatened with his life if he did not comply with orders and carry out this research. In spite of these threats, however, Viktor put his foot down and demanded from the SS Command the absolute right to select the various engineers he needed. He further demanded that any technicians he chose were to be removed entirely from the camp, fed properly, dressed in normal civilian clothes and billeted in civilian accommo- dation, otherw is e th ey woul d be unproductive. As he explained, people who live in fear of their lives and under great emotional stress could work neither consis- tently nor creatively. Surprisingly the SS agreed and so Viktor selected somewhere between twenty and thirty engineers, crafts- men and tradesman from Mauthausen, to be accommodated in various houses near the plant.

When they were all assembled. Viktor exhorted them to work as hard as they could, but under no circumstances were they to attempt to escape, otherwise his own life would be forfeit. They set to work with a will and, while not understanding what Viktor was trying to achieve, they neverthe- less carried out his instructions faithfully. Two machines were eventually built, one called a 'Repulsator' and the other a 'Repulsine', reflecting the forces of recoil active in them. Both machines operated with the densifying forces of implosion, which are far more powerful than those of explosion.

Although these will be examined in more detail in chapter 21, accurate information about them is difficult to obtain, because after the end of the War all top secret infor- mation was confiscated and sequestered by the Allies - the Russians, French, English and Americans - and is therefore no longer available to the general public. Nor is there any trace of Viktor's wartime patents, for which according to his usual custom he is certain to have applied.

From a certain point of view, Viktor Schauberger could have been considered lucky at the end of the war, because together with his team of engineers, he had been moved by the SS to Leonstein in Upper Austria due to the bombing of Vienna and therefore in May 1945 came under the jurisdiction of the American forces of occupation. In Leonstein Viktor was placed in protective custody for nine months by the Americans and quartered inside a doubly-fenced and guarded perimeter. This was done partly to glean information about his involuntary, though to him useful, wartime research into 'higher' atomic energies at Mauthausen and Leonstein and partly to prevent his abduction by the Russians. Confirmation of this can be found in a letter Viktor wrote to the German Minister of Defence, Franz Josef Strauss, on the 28th of February 1956. Here he relates how the last device upon which he had been working had been seized only a few days after its successful flight by American intelligence investigators, who appeared to be very well informed about it. Its most important component on the other hand, which was forgotten in the haste to move to Leonstein, had been removed by the Russians from his Vienna apartment and the apartment subsequently blown up. Once Viktor had been thoroughly 'de-briefed', he was apparently threatened with further internment should he be foolish enough to continue his research in this field. Apart from time spent on interrogation during this period of confinement, however, for Viktor - now almost entirely penniless - this was a time of reflection and reassessment of his future.

During this immediately postwar period food was still extremely scarce and many people were suffering from malnutrition. When he was ultimately released, eventually moving to Salzburg in late 1946, he then set about applying his wide knowledge to agriculture and the systems of cultivation then in use. In collaboration with Franz Rosenberger (and as discussed later in chapter 19), he was able to demonstrate that significant increases in productivity could be achieved using the knowledge he had acquired in Bulgaria before the war. All progress in this area subsequently being blocked by corrupt politicians in 1949, Viktor then returned to his study of implo- sion, energy generation and water move- ment, trying with his limited funds to pick up the threads of his earlier research, culmi- nating in a scientific investigation and vindi- cation of his theories on the natural flow of water at Stuttgart Technical University in 1952 under the direction of Prof. Franz Popel, which will be addressed in more detail in chapter 14.

With enquiring mind and tenacity of purpose, Viktor continued to work on his vari- ous devices. Aloys Kokaly, the publisher of Implosion, a magazine devoted to Viktor Schauberger's theories, and a former corpo- ral in the Waffen-SS who had managed by devious means to procure materials for Viktor's research at Schloss Schonbrunn, asked him why he was still working so hard, to which Viktor replied:

I must furnish those who would protect or save life, with an energy source, which produces energy so cheaply that nuclear fission will not only be uneconomical, but ridiculous. This is the task I have set myself in what little life I have left.19

The product of this last personal effort is the home-power generator shown in figs. 1.3 a&b, which due to Viktor's very limited pen- sioner's funds and its resulting crude, unso-

Fig. 1.3a The Home Power Generator. Fig. 1.3b

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 13

phisticated construction, did not function as well as he had hoped, for as it transpired, this machine was an unfortunate compro- mise between the geometry of mechanics and that of organics. It was a miserable cul- mination to the life's work of this quite remarkable man. Being the enlightened individual he was, Viktor Schauberger had a remarkable standard of personal integrity, honesty and responsibility. His word in any undertaking was always his bond, even if he was ulti- mately the loser. He would brook no deceit or underhand activity in any of those with whom he worked either as employers or employees. This often created enormous dif- ficulties for him and he suffered considerable personal losses as a result. He was not a businessman, nor had he any interest in the commercial exploitation of his inventions for personal gain. His overriding desire was to provide present and future generations with the ability in terms of knowledge and machines with which to usher in and sustain a golden age of prosperity, peace and harmony. His chief problem was always to find honest and unselfish people to help in the development and production of the various apparatuses needed to bring this about. In many instances his trust was sadly misplaced, as illustrated in extracts from a letter of the 4th February 1958 to a friend, a certain Mr. 'R', about 7 1/2 months before Viktor died.

I was always challenged to provide proof. Whenever I did this, I was robbed to such an extent that no other course was open to me, other than to remain silent once more. In the February issue of Weltgewissen you will be able to read that these apparatuses which the Austrian State Police took from me, are now being manufactured in Germany with enormous success. This has happened to me twelve times. Every time I had something produced, all I was given were the leftovers, while the best part was retained and exploited commercially by others. Or the apparatus was never made public, although I had paid all the agreed development costs myself. Subsequently large sums were demanded of me, which lay far beyond my capacity to pay, and the machines I was struggling to build were withheld as security against payment.

I then began to work covertly and in this way succeeded in producing workable machines. I then first became aware of what I had discovered, namely higher-grade atomic energies. At this stage 'Demonstrate it!', 'Prove it!', 'Let it be examined!' was and is always demanded. If I concur, then all is lost. If I do not, however, then I am a fraud.

Then along came a major German industrialist with his scientific advisors. He investigated the process and found it in order. Statements were made expressing readiness to proceed with fabrication and cost evaluation and then, yes, then one will just have to wait and see. All they are, are empty promises, never kept.

Now representatives of the U.S. government have announced themselves. They too want to see and evaluate everything first, and then, only then will it be considered what might be done.

I requested a provisional agreement, which would only come into force once I proved that I could achieve significantly increased output. This was rejected. First see, then negotiate and the outcome was always the same.

Professors also want first to see, evaluate and then, aye, and then take over.

My dear Mr. R, I have now reached the point where they can all kiss the place where my spinal column terminates. l am old and seriously ill. My only concern now is for all the poor children who are faced with a grisly future.

If I reveal everything it will only be hushed up, because it not only involves the whole scientific establishment, but also the doctrines of the Church. All power politics will collapse once the truth emerges that science is the actual causative agent of cancer.

I intend to return to the forest once more, there to die in peace. The whole of science and all its hangers-on are nothing but a band of thieves, who are suspended like marionettes and must dance to whatever tune their well-camouflaged slave-masters deem necessary?20

This letter, most probably written to Alois Renner in the light of what follows, heralded the final disastrous chapter of Viktor Schauberger's life, a chapter that started

Questions for Science

ENERGY

·                 What is it that keeps the Earth floating in space?

·                 Why does a top stand upright when it is spun from the side?

·                 What is temperature? What is heat? What is cold?

·                 What is energy?

·                 What is evaporation?

·                 What is vaporisation?

·                 What is dissolution?

·                 What is combination?

·                 What is absorption?

·                                         On what effects are these processes founded?

·                                         MAGNETISM

·                 Why do the magnetic lines of force run from south to north?

·                 Why does the Earth rotate from west to east?

THE SUN

·                 What serves the sun as a carrier of light and heat, if, in the view of our learned scientists, space is a vacuum?

·                 Why do gases condense with a decrease in temperature?

·                 Why don't the fiery gases of the Sun, with supposed temperatures of over 6000oC, stream out into space?

·                 Why is the light and heat in the tropics more diffuse and at the poles the Sun's light more intense and its radiant heat less?

ATMOSPHERE

·                 Why doesn't the Earth's warm air rise?

·                 Why is it so cold at the top of a mountain, i.e. nearer the Sun?

·                 Why in our houses is it warmer nearer the ceiling and colder at the floor, when an artificial source of heat is used?

·                 Why does marble expand with heat and why doesn't it contract again with cold?

EVAPORATION

·                 Why is the desert so dead despite all the heat?

·                 Why do damp tiled roofs dry out from the eaves towards the ridge?

WATER

·                 Why does the groundwater in walls rise far above the surface of the ground?

·                 Why don't wooden posts rot under water, but above it always?

·                 Why can rising cold water pierce through the hardest rock?

·                 Why does water pulsate and breathe?

·                 Why does groundwater manage to remain on the sides of mountains?

·                 Why, growing colder and heavier, does it rise upwards?

·                 Why does it frequently spring from high peaks?

RIVERS

·                 Why do west-to-east flowing watercourses fertilise their banks?

·                 Why are the banks of east-to-west flowing rivers so barren?

·                 Why are the banks of south-to-north flowing watercourses fertile on one side only?

·                 Why do rivers flowing into cold seas migrate laterally to the north?

·                 Why do deltas and estuaries develop?

·                 Why does a trout stand still in a raging torrent, as if by magic?

THE SEA

·                 Why is the water at the poles warmer at the bottom?

·                 Why is the sunlit surface at the poles so icily cold?

·                 Why doesn't the warmer, lighter bottom-water of the sea rise upwards?

·                 Why are the water temperatures at the equator so warm?

·                 Why is it that it gets colder with increasing depth?

·                 Why does it get warmer again below the boundary layer of +4oC?

·                 Why does life below this boundary layer begin anew?

·                 Why does the salt content of the seas vary?

·                 Why do herrings migrate northwards in winter?

·                 Why do deep-sea fish glow?

·                 Why can the warm Gulf Stream push the cold seawater aside and wend its way for thousands of kilometres over mountains and valleys in a reversed temperature gradient without the assistance of a mechanical gradient?

BLOOD

·                 Why do cold-blooded animals carry fever-inducing poison?

·                 Why does a cold fever occur in the tropics?

·                 Why does a warm fever arise from a chill?

·                 What is fever anyway?

·                 Why is our body temperature subnormal when climbing a mountain and above normal as we descend?

·                 Why does the heart beat in our breast?

·                 Who gives this muscle its impulse to move?

·                 Where is the motor for this pump?

·                 Why does blood circulate in our blood vessels?

·                 Why do the fluids in a chicken's egg circulate without a heart?

·                 Why do we breathe day and night, when asleep and even when totally unconscious?

·                 Does the heart beat because we breathe, or do we breathe because the heart beats?

TREES

·                 Why have light-demanding timbers a thick bark and shade-demanders only a thin one?

·                 Where is the heart of a plant? [from Our Senseless Toil]

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 15

with much hope for the final realisation of all that he had striven for in his life. Having had no appreciation or support from the government or anyone else in Austria, when he was eventually approached by the Americans, who expressed an enthusiastic interest in developing his theories on implosion, Viktor thought that at last something positive would hašpen as America was such a powerful country with tremendous entrepreneurial energy. He was by this time quite exasperaded at the behaviour of Europeans and what he had suffered at their hands, and in a conversation with Aloys Kokaly, Viktor somewhat embittered declared:

"AN American aircraft consortium offered me 3.5 million dollars, a similar offer was made by Canaian interests. "21

"You didn't want it in Europe, so now

you'll have to get it back from America expen-

sively!"22

This all came to pass, but as we shall see, nohing ever came back to Europe, nor to the rest of the world for that matter, which has been the greatest loss and misfortune for humanity at large. But before proceeding to this final tragic episode and to obtain some insight into the scope of Viktor's thinking, let us examine and present it by directly quoting a passage taken from his book Our Senseless Toil (see p. 14). Here he poses a number of questions relating to phenomena that appar- ently had not been satisfactorily investigated at the time. Since its publication in 1933, many of these may well have been answered, but not perhaps in the way that he would have himself, because of his different view of life processes. While presented here under their original heading, they are not in the same sequence as first written, but have been arranged according to subject and more or less in the order in which some of them will be discussed in this book.

1.2 What Happened in America

efore embarking on this last and lamenta-Bble chapter in Viktor Schauberger's life, I would like to state at the outset that signifi- cant and verifiable detail about it is extremely difficult to ascertain, mainly because all those involved, with the excep- tion of Karl Gerchsheimer with whom I spent two days, have passed away in the interim. In whatever information is available concerning this tragedy, there is a profusion of conflicting statements, interpretations and timetables which, 37 years after the event, makes the unravelling of what precisely took place in this, for all concerned, abortive endeavour rather problematic. That nothing eventually came of this unfortunate affair in my view is due largely to cumulative misunderstandings, misapprehensions and inadequate clarification on both sides, which finally culminated in a complete breakdown, not only in communication, but in mutual trust. The three principle factors that brought this about were firstly, the difficulty Viktor Schauberger had in describing accurately in language that others could understand exactly what forces, motion and energies were involved in the processes of implosion. His demonstration of their most elementary form, the centripetal inwinding vortex that forms over a waste pipe, was deemed far too simple and too familiar a phenomenon to be of any consequence. This provoked a rising scepticism and dwindling belief in the validity of Viktor's theories. The second factor relates to Viktor's and Walter's nervousness about possible theft and exploitation of the implosion idea, the result of the many misfortunes experienced by Viktor, as told to Mr 'R' in the above letter. The third factor was the absence of a working prototype.

While earlier accounts of this 1958 venture infer the involvement of the United States government, the initiative actually came from Karl Gerchsheimer. Born in 1903 to a well-connected family in Wiirzburg, Bavaria, in his youth Gerchsheimer spent a great deal of time in the surrounding forests and had developed an understanding of Nature, of the importance and function of trees and water very similar to that of Viktor Schauberger. In this particular area both Gerchsheimer and Viktor seem to have had a great deal in common. Leaving Germany in

1922, Gerchsheimer's life followed an event- ful path. Under contract to the Mexican Government from 1926 to 1935 he reformed Mexican agriculture and introduced the pineapple and banana. He also installed the potable water supply system for the whole of Mexico City and set up the Mexican Highway Police, which under his steward- ship became renown for its incorruptibility. Moving to Texas in 1937, where he married his present wife, it would appear that he later became involved in US counter-espi- onage activities during World War II, the most likely agency being the C.I.C. (Counter Intelligence Corps). From war's end in 1945 to 1950 he was the U.S civilian property administrator-in-chief in charge of all civil administration, logistics, transport and accommodation under the American Army of Occupation, and in this role was the most powerful non-military individual in the American zone. Returning to the United States in 1950, he set up his own metal fabrication business, which manufactured a large number components under contract to NASA and from which he retired at age 81.

In the years immediately following his return to America in 1950, Gerchsheimer gradually developed a close friendship with Robert Donner, who was the former owner of the Donner Steelworks of Phila- delphia, a large and prosperous company. Very much a patriot who waged constant war against subversive activity in the United States, Donner eventually retired to Colorado Springs, Colorado, an extremely wealthy man (Gerchsheimer placed his personal fortune in 1958 at about US$400 million). He was also the chief executive of the Donner Foundation, a philanthropic organi- sation set up by his father in Philadelphia in the mid-1940s to fund cancer research which in the 1950s and 1960s awarded grants for educational and other charitable ven- tures.

Over the years Gerchsheimer had become increasingly disenchanted with technology's use of explosive forces to generate power and motion. Viewing with disdain Werner von Braun's efforts to conquer space with rockets powered by explosion, a matter he discussed with von Braun himself at NASA, Gerch- sheimer gradually became convinced that some other antithetical system of propulsion would solve the problems of powered flight and open the way towards a safe and effec- tive exploration of space. During the course of their rising friendship, Gerchsheimer had often expressed these views to Robert Donner, engaging the latter's interest in the potential of these other forces, if they could be harnessed. In late 1957 these convictions of Gerchsheimer's became more concretised upon reading about Viktor Schauberger and implosion in a German publication - most probably Leopold Brandstatter's booklet "Implosion statt Explosion" published in 1956, although Gerchsheimer does not confirm this, in which Viktor's theories were elaborated.

With this more definite information to hand, Gerchsheimer then enthused Donner with the idea of visiting Viktor Schauberger himself, because if valid, his theories were worthy of closer examination. Moreover to maintain American supremacy as a world power, it was important that an invention of such promise should be developed in the United States rather than in any other coun- try. Agreeing to this, Donner then told Gerchsheimer to make arrangements for immediate travel to Austria. In addition, however, and much to Gerchsheimer's annoyance, Donner also insisted that he be accompanied by his financial adviser, Norman Dodd, who was to be in overall charge of the expedition. A man in his early 60s, Norman Dodd moved in financial and investment circles in New York and was Donner's trusted financial consultant, a position he had held for the preceding 10 years or so, which had resulted in a firm friendship between the two men. Dodd was also the author of an investigative study carried out on behalf of Congress into the financial structures, administrative procedures, taxa- tion, etc., both legal and fraudulent, of various American foundations and like organisations. According to Gerchsheimer, this study, though completed and backed by Congress, was never published, because too

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? Y7

many people in high places would have been implicated.

Donner's decision having been made, Gerchsheimer then contacted his business acquaintance, Harald W. Totten (some reports claim that Gerchsheimer actually worked for Totten), the proprietor of the Washington Iron Works Inc., in Sherman, Texas. He suggested that Totten's foundry, pipe-making and precision engineering works would be the ideal venue for developing and replicating Viktor's devices. Totten's interest was immediately aroused and he agreed to make his premises available. All this having been arranged, Gerchsheimer and Dodd informed Viktor of their impend- ing visit. Flying to Frankfurt in mid-April 1958, they proceeded from there by chauf- feur-driven car to Linz on the Danube, where Viktor lived. After the initial introductions were over, at which Walter Schauberger was also present, Gerchsheimer began to explain the purpose of their visit. Speaking in fluent German with a Bavarian accent, Gerchsheimer told Viktor, or the "Old Man" as he came to be called, that they had come as representatives of Robert Donner, an American financier inter- ested in the rapid development and practical implementation of Viktor's theories on implosion, for which almost unlimited funds could eventually be made available. Gerchsheimer relates that at the time both Schaubergers seemed to be in a state of high anxiety about espionage and surveillance, even to the point of expressing concern over the identity and presence of the German chauffeur and guide who had been left outside. Mindful of his 9-month surveillance by American intelligence in 1945/46, a period when Walter Schauberger had also been interrogated, Viktor was certain that they were once more being watched and expressed his deep-seated unease to Gerchsheimer. At this Gerchsheimer laughed, but at the same time offered to find out. In front of the Schaubergers he rang up the Criminal Investigation Department of the Austrian police. Though this produced assurances that neither Viktor nor Walter were under surveillance, Viktor was still not happy. Well acquainted with U.S. intelli- gence agencies as former U.S. property administrator, Gerchsheimer then contacted the F.B.I.'s offices in Germany, thus demon- strating an intimate familiarity with intelligence agencies. Gerchsheimer himself admits that in hindsight this well-intentioned action probably did more to confirm the Schaubergers' suspicions than to allay them.

All this took place at a time when Viktor was involved in a legal wrangle at the Salzburg District Court to recover a number of machines that he had commissioned Sebastian Thurner, a mechanical engineering professor at the Salzburg Polytechnic School, to build for him. These devices were a fur- ther development of the home-power generator shown in figs. 1.3a and 1.3b, which apparently had ruptured when first switched on. Due to obstructions or constrictions in the spiral core-pipes, strong pressures had been created within them instead of the anticipated suction, resulting in an explosion. Three redesigned models were appar- ently built incorporating a pressure-relief valve, one of which Viktor had obtained, the other two being withheld against payment of Thurner's costs.

As discussions with the Schaubergers progressed it became apparent to Gerchsheimer and Dodd that they were not the only parties interested in the development of Viktor's theories on implosion. A number of other organisations including certain Swiss inter- ests were also in the process of negotiating for Viktor's devices. Wishing to put paid to any competition, Gerchsheimer regaled Viktor with assurances as to how much eas- ier it would be to obtain large sums of research money in the United States than in Europe, where so much still had to be directed towards reconstruction. Taking Gerchsheimer's lead, Dodd then urged Viktor to come over to America to complete his life's work, pointing out that historically America had often shown that it was pre- pared to undertake ventures considered Utopian in Europe. Moreover Viktor's and Walter's work had the potential to solve a problem, whose solution despite much

research had long remained unsolved, namely the generation of virtually free energy.

Financing such research and development would present few problems in the United States, however, for once a small operational prototype had been successfully built, then a research foundation would be set up into which millions of tax-free dollars could be invested. Gerchsheimer then revealed that there was an engineering facility in Texas well able, ready and willing to develop and build Viktor's machines.

His interest awakened, Viktor asked for time to consider their proposal. After Viktor and Walter had discussed the offer between themselves and with Viktor's still reluctant agreement, because he did not really want to leave Austria, Viktor then gave his provisional assent. Under psychological pressure from the rumoured competitors and fearing a successful outcome to their already advanced negotiations with the Schaubergers, the following day Dodd offered Viktor US$15,000 in down payment on his various data and models, a sum that Viktor had previously requested in order to pay Thurner. In taking this step, however, Dodd apparently exceeded his authority for he had insufficient funds to back the offer up. Promising Viktor that they had every intention of developing implosion in America and asking him to sign nothing until they returned, Gerchsheimer and Dodd hastened back to the United States to confer with Robert Donner and finalise arrangements. Just before they left, however, Viktor warned them stating that:

"I am neither a technologist nor an engineer, all I understand is the principle. I could only agree to come provided certain conditions are met as I don't feel very well physically and I don't think I am really up to the rigours of the journey. "23

Viktor's concern in this respect was well-founded, for his physical condition at the time was not good. Apart from suffering from emphysema and an ailing heart - the result of his wartime experiences, the pre- ceding winter had taken an enormous toll of him, to the point where he felt that he had little time left to live. In response it was immediately proposed that Viktor should be accompanied by an Austrian doctor in whom he had confidence and who would look after him, all expenses being paid by the Americans. At this Viktor brightened and was eventually accompanied by his son-in-law, Dr Walter Luib.

A few days later at Donner's house in Colorado Springs, Gerchsheimer and Dodd delivered a full report on events in Austria. While agreeing to authorise payment of Dodd's offer in full, Donner also wanted to secure his investment and asked his lawyer to draw up a contract for eventual signa-ture by Viktor. The substance of this contract required Viktor to acknowledge the receipt of the US$15,000, to be paid in cash as an initial payment towards the acquisition by the Donner, Dodd, Gerchsheimer consortium of all relevant data, designs, drawing and models related to Viktor's implosive theories. Walter Schauberger was also to receive an advance of US$5,000 at the same time.

Returning to Europe in early May, Gerchsheimer and Dodd drove to Linz in a white Mercedes two-seater sports-car that Gerch- sheimer had bought on arrival in Germany. Finding Viktor unwell when they arrived, they picked him up or arranged for his trans- fer to Bad Ischl. Here Viktor was accommo- dated in a villa just outside the town, where they could keep an eye on him while his health improved and also ward off any further contact with possible competitors. First on the agenda was the contract. This stated that Viktor's sojourn in the United States would be for 3 months only, and that Walter Schauberger, a physicist and mathematician, was to accompany his father and would be expected to stay for a year in order to assist in the scientific interpretation of Viktor's ideas for which there was often no recog- nised scientific terminology. One further condition required that Viktor grant permis- sion for all pertinent data and devices neces- sary for the success of 'Project Implosion' to be transferred to the United States. Before agreeing to sign the contract, however, Viktor stipulated that Alois Renner, his

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 19

trusted friend and exceptionally gifted machinist who had manufactured some of Victor's devices, would have to be brought over to the United States to collaborate with Victor in building the models. Renner's salary in this regard was to be paid by Donner or the Washington Iron Works. Concurring with Viktor's demands, this first agreement, whereunder Viktor and Walter were required henceforth to maintain total secrecy, was signed on the 9th of May.

While waiting for Viktor's health to recover sufficiently for the journey and the better to acquaint themselves with his ideas. Gerchsheimer and Dodd continued their discussions with Viktor and Walter on a daily basis, talking first with Viktor in the morning and Walter in the afternoon. While it has been contended that seeingViktor and Walter separately was intentional, it was far more probably due to the fact that Viktor's health was better in the morning and that there was insufficient space in the Mercedes for more than two people comfortably. In their morning talks over and after breakfast, Viktor tried to explain everything about his theories of implosion and how they could be implemented practically, Gerchsheimer admits that he was very impressed with Viktor's wide knowledge of forestry and water, though not comprehend- ing his detailed explanation of implosion. In the afternoon the attention of the two Americans turned to Walter, who, while alluding to a good knowledge of physics, mainly elaborated on his activities in connection with the "Grime Front" (Green Front), a movement started by Viktor in the early 1950s to inaugurate large scale reafforesta- tion. In this way Gerchsheimer and Dodd gradually obtained a more concrete idea of what the Schaubergers had to offer. In my discussions with Gerchsheimer, he revealed that in his opinion Walter neither knew nor understood much about his father's theories.

While Gerchsheimer was relatively well versed in the overall concept of implosion and also had a greater understanding of Nature's processes, Dodd's life had been devoted to finance and investment. Dodd was therefore something of a layman during these discussions and unable to take any really effective part, having to rely on Gerchsheimer's opinion as to the substance and validity of Viktor's ideas. In this way their roles gradually reversed with Gerchsheimer gaining the more command- ing position. In some ways, however, Dodd was more instrumental in bringing theSchaubergers to America than Gerchsheimer. His quiet, forthright and sincere nature inspired the Schaubergers with confidence and it was essentially because of him that they eventually agreed to the Americans' overtures. After about three weeks of talks and feeling in better health, Viktor finally agreed to go, but reiterated categorically that:

"One thing is to be thoroughly understood. This whole affair is not to take longer than three months; three months only and not a single day longer !"24

Early in June Viktor and Walter were requested to fill out a comprehensive ques- tionnaire for the purposes of obtaining visas to the United States. Shortly thereafter on the 17th of June, 10 days before their departure, they were taken to the American consulate in Salzburg to have the necessary visas stamped into their passports. 10 minutes after their arrival, their passports were returned to them. Shaking their hands after the formalities had been completed, the con- sul then congratulated them on the four-year duration of their visas. Both Viktor and Walter found this remark rather unsettling, for contrary to the original agreement, whereby Walter would be in the United States for only one year and Viktor for only three months, it now appeared that their presence was required for four years. At this early stage of the affair, however, this mooted extension of their sojourn may in no way have reflected what was actually planned at the time, because visas are often issued with a currency of four years. The Schaubergers' trepidations, while well-founded from their point of view owing to their limited experience of post-war travel, would therefore have had no basis in fact.

From the 18th of June onwards at Gerchsheimer's request and expense, Walter set about gathering together all the proto- types, working models, documents, designs, drawings, patents, of whatever kind, which he thought would be material to the research and development of implosion. These were eventually packed into cartons and crates and forwarded by sea to the Washington Iron Works Inc. in Texas, where Viktor devices were to be fabricated. Prior to leav- ing for Frankfurt to arrange the necessary air-tickets, Gerchsheimer advised the Schaubergers to leave all traditional Austrian clothing, 'trachten', 'lederhosen', etc., behind as they would be unsuited to the climate in Texas. More normal apparel would also permit their discrete and in- conspicuous integration into American life.

On the 25th of June Viktor, Walter and Dr.

Luib left Linz for Frankfurt by train. There they were met by Gerchsheimer and Dodd, who had arrived two days earlier, and were taken to an American-owned hotel for the night. At 10 pm the following day all five boarded a Pan American Airways flight and were flown non-stop to New York, a rela- tively low-altitude, bumpy flight of 11 to 13 hours according to headwind, which for Viktor in his low state of health would have been a gruelling experience. Here Dodd had arranged for the Schaubergers and Dr. Luib to be put up for two or three days at the University Club at 1 West 54th Street, of which Dodd was a member, so as to allow Viktor to recover from the long flight. The following day, while Viktor remained in his room, Walter went sight-seeing and was taken to the top of the Empire State building. On the 30th June a small celebration was held for Viktor's 73rd birthday. While earlier reports have stated that a large banquet was held in their honour by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Gerchsheimer denies this on the grounds that Donner would have shunned any such publicity.

When the time came for departure for

Texas on the 1st of July, Dodd, who hitherto

had been their constant companion, was

apparently no longer to accompany them. In

an unguarded remark by Gerchsheimer,

Walter learned that Dodd was about to be

dismissed by Donner. Dodd himself was

only informed of this about three weeks after

the Schaubergers had arrived in Texas. The

reasons for Dodd's dismissal are not

recorded, but a newspaper article of the 21

August 1959 in the Gazette Telegraph of

Colorado Springs reports on a law suit

against Donner in which Dodd sought

US$100,000 in damages for wrongful dis

missal. Unaware of his impending dismissal,

however, Dodd set about arranging for the

immigration of Renner and his wife to the

United States as stipulated in the contract

signed in Linz. In this endeavour he appar-

ently pulled a number of strings in high

places in order to expedite matters, as no fur-

ther progress could be made on the project

until Renner had arrived. This took consider-

ably longer than anticipated owing to the

emergence of certain unstated irregularities,

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 21

which delayed the Renners arrival in

Texas until September 3rd. Boarding the American Airlines plane (fig. 1.4), Viktor, Walter, Dr. Luib and Gerch-sheimer then flew non-stop to Dallas. As they flew over the mid-western States, Viktor looked down despondently at the near treeless landscape passing by underneath, which was dotted here and there by bores and high water towers, all of which provoked the remark:

"What's the point? From a biological point of view what's down there is a dying land. The water's had it. The soil's had it and the earth is as dry as a hot plate! You haven't the vaguest idea what water is! Water belongs inside the earth and not above it. What's in these water towers is no longer water, but firewater !"25

Arriving in Dallas they were greeted by Gerchsheimer's family and Harald W. Totten and taken to a restaurant to have something to eat and relax from the journey. Pending decisions as to their final accommodation,

the Schaubergers and Dr Luib spent two or

three days in motel in Sherman before being

comfortably installed in Harald Totten's

large, air-conditioned ranch-house complete

with swimming pool about 3 miles from

town. Encouraged to rest and acclimatise

themselves while waiting for Renner to

arrive, here they were provided with all they

needed, which included a telephone, a cook

and a car and chauffeur to take them into

town when necessary (fig. 1.5).

For the first three weeks while waiting for Renner's arrival, Gerchsheimer continued to try to gain greater insight into Viktor's ideas. As has been mentioned earlier, however, the language and terminology Viktor used to describe the dynamics of implosion and the functioning of his machines was very difficult to understand in any concrete way. Moreover, Viktor continually reiterated that to understand it all properly it was imperative that an actual machine should be examined. This never happened. Walter was apparently of no use whatsoever in any of these explanations either, because at the time he too was insufficiently acquainted with his father's theories and their implementation. As a result Gerchsheimer found Viktor's description of the processes of implosion and his higher form of atomic energy increasingly incompre- hensible - gobbledygook was how Gerch-sheimer described it to me. Becoming more and more exasperated and frustrated with the whole affair, he eventually came to the conclu- sion that the Schaubergers had nothing to offer. Viktor also had problems, but of a different nature. Coupled with the difficulties of communicating his ideas to Gerchsheimer, iso- lation in the oppressive heat and vastness of Texas, and inactivity due to Renner's non- arrival, Viktor's psychological and physical condition declined. On Gerchsheimer's advice and with Dr Luib's agreement, Viktor was removed to a clinic near Sherman for observation. Eventually staying some four weeks, he apparently responded satisfactorily to treat- ment. The end-effect of Viktor's physical lapse, however, was to increase his longing to return to his natural habitat in Austria. One full moonlit night in August, while standing in the evening cool, Viktor said to Walter:

"You have no idea how wonderful it will be, when I can tread European soil once more ! I felt myself obliged to come to America despite my health and age. Whatever it was that I could do, I do believe I have now done."26

Seriously concerned for Viktor's physical condition, Walter proposed a plan of work which he submitted to Gerchsheimer on the 9th of August. In this Walter suggested that once Viktor was well enough to travel, both he and Walter should then return to Austria, where Viktor would continue to act as con- sultant. Having safely installed his father, Walter would then return to America with his family for a year with visitor status only to oversee the development of the implosion devices. This proposal was evidently rejected by Gerchsheimer, who, unable to evaluate Schauberger's data himself, but being finan- cially committed to the project, had mean- while voiced his rising disquiet and disbelief to Donner.

Upset at hearing this and anxious for the success of the venture Donner then flew to New York and on to the National Atomic Research Laboratories at Brook- haven, Long Island, to seeking expert scientific opinion on Viktor's theories and his new form of atomic energy. In discus- sions held over the next three days from the 15th - 17th August culminating in a written agreement, the services of Eric A. Boerner, a native German speaker and the head of a team of design engineers working on the Cosmotron Project, were retained to act as go-between. (Used for the investigation of atomic structures and nuclear particles, the Cosmotron was a proton (ionised hydrogen atom) accelerator or synchrotron, which made use of a large toroidal electromagnet to generate high electric and magnetic fields. These were required to guide and accelerate the particles to an energy of 3,000,000,000 electron volts (3 GeV) in preparation for subsequent collision with atomic nuclei through which the behaviour of the scattered nuclear particles could be evaluated.) While no nuclear physicist himself, Boerner was sufficiently conversant with the terminology and fundamentals of nuclear physics to be able to translate and transmit any information to the scientific evaluators that the Schaubergers might provide. At one point during these negotiations, Boerner apparently suggested that a multi-million dollar implosion research centre be set up in Arizona, perhaps with an idea of leading it himself. Boerner evidently mentioned this proposal to the Schaubergers, who seem to have misinter- preted it as fact, although it had already been rejected by both Gerchsheimer and Donner. Having finalised the agreement, Donner returned to Colorado Springs the next day. From this point matters began to accelerate, reaching their zenith in early to mid- September.

On the 20th of August, some seven weeks after their arrival in Texas, Gerchsheimer instructed the Schaubergers to write up their own separate reports about implosion, at the same time announcing that a decisive confer- ence was to take place in three weeks' time. Viktor was told that he should write his reports in his own words, regardless of whether the concepts or terms he used might or might not be correct, because any pearls of wisdom they contained would still be extracted. Headed P.O. Box 28, Sherman, Texas, Viktor Schauberger's reports were addressed to Mr Eric. A. Boerner, National Atomic Research Laboratory, Brookhaven, Upton, New York State. As a subheading it was further indicated that their submission was at the behest of Mr Robert Donner or his represen- tative, Mr Karl Gerchsheimer, in accordance with the agreement drawn up on the 15th, 16th & 17th August 1958 at Brookhaven. The writing of these reports took about 10 days from the 20th to the 31st August, Walter's mainly addressing and reinterpreting the known facts of physics, one 12 page report dis- cussing various aspects of bio-magnetic axes. When finished these were collected on a daily basis by Gerchsheimer, who for- warded them post-haste to Boerner for trans- lation and transmission to the scientific evaluators.

On all accounts it seems that much of the communication between the Schau- bergers and Gerchsheimer were fairly per- functory, with few chances of real

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 23

clarification about the personalities, project and programme. Being thus kept largely in the dark, patience and tolerance between both sides began to be very strained with Gerchsheimer's communication becom- ing increasingly terse and he himself more distant. It would therefore seem quite likely that the Schauberger's were not wholly informed as to who Boerner actually was and came to believe that he was the director of the Cosmotron Project. Thus erroneously invested with high office at the National Atomic Research Labora- tories,. Boerner inevitably became bracketted with the cutting edge of nuclear research and in consequence fallaciously accredited with government backing and top secret clearances. As a result the Schaubergers came to believe that Boerner was an expert on all questions concerning energy. On occasion during discussions at which I was present, Walter Schauberger admitted that in the process of producing their reports, it dawned on them that a bomb could possibly be pro- duced through implosion that was magni- tudes more powerful than the hydrogen bomb. Assuming Boerner to be more influential than he was, Viktor and Walter became convinced that all the information they were supplying to him was being passed directly to the U.S. government and the military. Since the Schaubergers' principal preoccupa- tion concerned the enhancement of Life and no doubt anxious not to enable or participate in any way in the development of such a lethal device, this may well have contributed to the communication difficulties that peaked towards the end of the project. These problems were indubitably exacerbated by Viktor's later vow of silence, which in the light of the above realisation could well have been more than accidental and would also go a long way towards explaining Walter's behaviour at the third and most important meeting in Colorado Springs, described later. The cartons and crates despatched from Europe having meanwhile arrived in Sherman, on the appointed day in early September the conference was convened. It was attended by Viktor, Walter, Dormer,

Boerner and possibly Renner. This first of three meetings then took place at Totten's ranch outside Sherman. Although chaired by Donner, it was addressed principally by Boerner, who declared that Project Implosion was now a viable proposition, because Viktor's ideas and basic premises had been found to be in agreement with newly established facts of physics, namely the functional dynamics of implosion. An energy concept in accord with Nature's processes could therefore be realised. In Boerner's view the solution of the problem of energy lay in the proper interpretation of Max Planck's equation E = hv, formulated in 1900, and the Friedrich Hasenohrl-Albert Einstein equa- tion E = mc2. 27 Walter's unveiling of the true interpretation of c2 had clarified the way in which Nature's energies were accumulated and therefore there was now a sound mathematical and physical basis upon which Project Implosion could proceed (see boxed data entitled "The Consonances between E = hv, E = mc2 and Kepler's 3rd Law of Planetary Motion", p.24). This having been established a start could now be made. Viktor and Walter were then told that a four-year period of development would be required before fruition. Energy was prob- lem No. 1 for the United States and its solu- tion required an all-out effort, particularly from Viktor and Walter, which would neces- sitate their presence in America for eight years. With this statement no doubt all Viktor's and Walter's earlier suspicions about the four-year currency of their visas were thoroughly confirmed. To be fair, how- ever, the possibility exists that a stay of such length had not originally been envisaged, but evolved into a necessity, the result of the far more comprehensive information the Schaubergers had supplied. Viktor was deeply shocked at this announcement, partly at the prospect of an 8-year sojourn in a foreign land isolated by language, but more importantly at the enormous deceit, if deceit it was, that had been perpetrated on them. When Viktor interjected animatedly that in the initial agreement he was only required to stay for three months, he was told that he would have two days to accustom himself to

The Consonances between E = hv, E = mc2 and Kepler's 3rd law of Planetary Motion

In clarification of the above, Planck's equation E = hv or hf relates to his law of radiation which states that: "Energy only exists in multiples of whole numbers. The total action of energy is always a whole-numbered multiple of h." (postulate of quantum theory). In this equation the energy of electromagnetic radiation E is the product of a universal and fundamental physical constant h = (6.62 x 10-34 joule/seconds -, Planck's constant) times a frequency f or v, which can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete packets or quanta. This leads to the concept of energetic periodicities, which can be variously interpreted as longitudinally pulsative, cyclical, rotational, helical or wave-like forms of motion, Nature expressing herself physically and exclusively through the properties of the whole number or the creation of discrete individualities, atoms, trees, humans, etc. The analogous Hasenohrl- Einstein equation E =

2

mc on the other hand states that energy E is the product of mass m times the speed of light c squared. However, since electromagnetic radiation can only be manifested in discrete quanta, as above, then the speed of lightsquared as a factor in electromagnetic radiation, which according to relativity is assumed to be an invariable constant, should also be interpretable in terms of periodicities -whole numbers and their reciprocals, the latter being inversely proportional to and therefore true harmonics of the former. In consequence of this, if as Walter Schauberger claimed at the time, radiation is propagated through space not in linear fashion, but spirally, then the absolute speed of light, i.e. the combined spiral and translatory (radial) velocities at which light travels along a given trajectory through space, must vary according to frequency, its speed being a product of angular acceleration and spiral radius of action.

Evidence substantiating this spiral movement was produced by Prof. Felix Ehrenhaft at the Physics Department of Vienna University in 1949 through a process known as photophoresis. Reported in the Acta Physica Austriaca (Vol. 4,1950 and Vol. 5,1951), the behaviour of barely perceptible particles of matter and gas particles enclosed in glass tubes were observed when illuminated byconcentrated light-rays of various frequencies. Observations of this phenomenon were made under conditions varying from high pressure to high vacuum (30 atm to 1 x 10-6 mm Hg [Hg = mercury]) and it was concluded that since the spiral movement of the observed particles was caused by light-rays, the particles had to be propelled along the same spiral path as the lightitself (fig.1.6). It was also determined that light magnetises matter and noted that while some particles spiralled away from the light source, others such as chlorophyll, gyrated towards it. Measurements also determined that the observed particles orbited up to 650 times per second while rotating at 4,000 cps about their own axes, an effect only possible because the calculated energies involved, apparently endowed with antigravitational properties, were 70 times more powerful than gravity. According to Walter Schauberger'sformulation derived from standard physics, where energy £ in the form of work W is the product of mass m x acceleration a x displacement s, e.g. W or E = mas, the speed of light squared c2 can be equated with as, or more specifically as angular acceleration rw2 x radius r. For each rotation through 360°, long wavelength, low frequency radiation would therefore describe a wider (greater radius) and thus longer (slower angular acceleration) spiral path than short-wave, high frequency radiation. In view of this the absolute speed of light as it travels forwards along a given axial path over this same distance is NOT CONSTANT, but as stated above is the varying product of the reciprocities of spiral radius r x angularacceleration rw2. Wavelength thus becomes either the spiral or axial distance between 360° nodes and frequency the number of 360° rotations within a given period of time. Long- wave and short-wave frequencies would therefore arrive at fractionally different times over a given distance. This may well account for the equally fractional differences in the measured speed of light to be found in various textbooks, different because the frequencies of the light measured were marginally different. By extension the mass m of a given elementary particle, atom, etc., or its momentum could therefore be deemed to be dependent upon its characteristic rate of rotation, which in turn is the product of the energy-packet's or quantum's radius of action and angular acceleration; the tighter the radius, the faster the angular acceleration and periodicity (frequency), the more powerful the energeticeffect and the greater the mass, and vice versa. This reciprocity would also explain why the measured intensities and energies of cosmic radiation, for example, are higher than those of x-rays, the radius of the cosmic ray spiral being significantly smaller and therefore its kinetic

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 25

energy and translatory velocity commensurately

higher. With implosive vortical motion, where the radius of action constantly reduces, the increase in angular acceleration and therefore the magnification of the energetic effect would be automatic A second factor here may relate to Walter Schauberger's re-interpretation of Sir Isaac Newton's reformulation of Kepler's 3rd law of planetary motion. In Johannes Kepler's original formulation this states that the square of the orbital period T is proportional to the cube of the orbital radius a. in the form:

Taking the periods and radii of all the planets into account, the average value for T2/a3 amounts to 2.987 773 813, which seems to have a connection with the values of 29 elaborated in fig. 3.4 (p. 45). In Newton's equation for gravitational attraction between two celestial bodies

where G = 6.67 x 10-11 N.m2/kg2 = Gravitational constant; M = the mass of the Sun; m = a given planet's mass; r = the radial distance from the Sun; v = the planet's mean orbital velocity.

the idea, because Viktor too would have to make some sacrifices. Donner then closed the conference and all present left for their cars except for Viktor and Walter, who remained behind.

The second conference, which was scheduled not long after the first, took place in the main workshop of the Washington Iron Works in which the crates despatched from Austria had meanwhile been placed. Some employees were ordered to dismantle the most important prototype, namely the one built by Thurner, whose central core element was a single casting consisting of a number of whorl-pipes (figs. 1.3a & b). As an eye-witness, Walter relates how this was brutally cut open with metal-cutting power-saws, leaving Viktor totally speechless. While some continued their examination unmoved by this event, Viktor and Walter were asked to accompany the

According to Walter Schauberger's re- interpretation, M can have the value of 1 and since G is a constant, it is merely a multiplier and therefore can be removed from the equation without negating the equation's validity. Thus equation (1) above becomes

If r is equal in length to 1 astronomical unit (1 AU = the distance between Sun and Earth), and the Earth's mean orbital velocity = 29.799 328 85 km/sec, then rv2 = 888. Using 888 as the hyperbolic constant, the orbital velocities and radii of any planet can be calculated and plotted on a rectangular hyperbola. The combined concept that lighttravelled or orbited spirally about its axis of propagation and the simplification of Kepler's3rd Law, may therefore provide the basis for determining the actual speed and radius of action of any given electromagnetic radiation, for once the radius of action of a particular frequency can be determined, then the radii and actual spiral velocities should be determinable for all other forms of electromagnetic radiation. It is these congruencies that may have provided the "sound... basis on which... to proceed".

others to a nearby office for further detailed discussion of the project. Both Viktor and Walter had many questions arisingfrom the previous meeting and urgently asked for more information and clarification. Their questions were brushed aside, how- ever, and they were told that these would be answered at the next conference. On the wayback to their quarters, Viktor confided to Walter that he was going to insist that he be returned to Austria after the agreed three months had passed, otherwise he would henceforth remain silent. When Gerch- sheimer appeared the next day Viktor at once informed him that, since they had broken their agreement with him, he would remain silent and would not cooperate in the project.

About three days after this 2nd meeting, Viktor having returned to hospital, Walter accompanied Gerchsheimer on a trip to Colorado Springs for a decisive 3rd meeting with Donner and executives of the Eastern Oil Company and Trunk Line Company. Attended by their scientific advisers, they had flown specially from New Mexico for the meeting to be held on the following day. While Gerchsheimer stayed with Donner, Walter was put up at a nearby hotel, Gerchsheimer having lent him his imported white Mercedes to drive to the meeting at the Broadmoor Hotel in the morning. The meet- ing took place as scheduled, but without Walter's attendance. Instead he had appar- ently driven up to the top of the famous Pike's Peak (about 14,000 ft), returning from there only in the late afternoon. When he eventually arrived at the Broadmoor Hotel Gerchsheimer was almost speechless with fury, because Walter's attendance had been crucial to the success of the conference, which in his absence had been a total fiasco. Demanding an explanation, Walter appar- ently answered that he had simply forgotten. This only added fuel to Gerchsheimer's fire, because Walter was an intelligent man and his non-attendance could therefore not have been an accident. Why Walter did this will never be known. Perhaps he was motivated by his and Viktor's desire to withhold any further information on implosive nuclear energies. Whatever the reason, it effectively scuttled the whole project. Donner was equally furious and after ordering Gerchsheimer to send the Schaubergers home at once, instructed his lawyer, Mr Ross, to draw up a final contract for the Schauberger's immediate signature.

Two days later on the 13th of September at about 5 pm, Viktor and Walter were col- lected by Gerchsheimer for the fourth and final meeting, which took place in Totten's office. While Totten looked on grimly from behind his desk, Donner sat at a small table in the middle of the room. When Viktor entered he was shown to a seat opposite Donner, the remaining com- pany, Gerchsheimer, Donner's lawyer and Walter standing at the back of the room, Donner then signed a document in front of Viktor and passed his golden pen over for Viktor's signature. Picking up the document Gerchsheimer handed it to Viktor and announced that it had been decided to permit his return to Austria, the only stipula- tion being that he should countersign the document. At first Viktor demurred, because it was written in English, a language he could neither read nor understand. Looking to Walter for help, an argument then broke out between Walter and Gerchsheimer, Walter insisting that the document be translated into German so that Viktor would know what he was supposed to sign. Gerchsheimer became extremely irritated at this and asked Walter to keep silent. He then turned to Viktor and assured him that he could safely sign the document unread, for with its signing all his wishes would be fulfilled.

At this point Gerchsheimer reminded Donner that they had to be at the airport in ten minutes, whereupon Walter demanded that the contents of the 'contract' should at least be translated to Viktor orally. By this time in a state of semi mental paralysis born of his desperation to return home and to get the whole matter over quickly, Viktor told Walter that he wanted to sign the agreement whatever it contained. Walter then asked Gerchsheimer for a copy of the document, so that he could check as far as he was able, the

Who was Viktor Schauberger? 27

accuracy of the salient points of the oral translation.

It is not known how fluent Walter's English actually was. In London in 1951, however he was invited by Richard St. Barbe Baker to give lectures and conduct experiments at the Dorchester Hotel to which the full diplomatic corps had been invited, an event that St. Barbe Baker described as highly successful. While in England Walter gave lectures in Cambridge, Birmingham and Oxford, and also took the opportunity to visit William Lawrence Bragg (Nobel prize for physics 1915 for his x-ray study of crystal structures) and Sir James Chadwick (Nobel prize for physics 1935 for his 1932 discovery of the neutron). Apparently there had been few communication difficulties during their exchanges of view, although both Bragg and Chadwick may well have spoken German. All this having happened some seven years previously, however fluent Walter may have been at the time, his English had no doubt become extremely rusty in the interim. This demand to sight the document, however, provoked even further argument. When it was finally explained to him in German, Viktor quickly signed it. It was only later that the soul-destroying realisation dawned on him that he had signed away his whole mind, his whole life and everything for which he had striven. I have studied this document myself and it does state in quite unequivocal terms, that not only were all Viktor's models, sketches, prototypes, reports and other data to become the sole property of the Donner-Gerchsheimer con- sortium, but that Viktor was to commit himself to total silence on anything connected with implosion thereafter. Moreover, any further concepts or ideas he might develop in the future were also to belong to Donner and Gerchsheimer, and under no circumstances whatever could he discuss these or anything else with anyone else.. While on the face of it this coercive action by the Americans might appear reprehensible, it could equally well be argued that, having expended considerable sums on this venture, they at least wanted to recuperate some of

their losses by legally acquiring possession of Viktor's apparatuses as collateral. This would no doubt have been done with a view to exploiting them commercially in some way in the future. The manner in which this was achieved notwithstanding, to legitimise such acquisition, the signing of the above document by Viktor personally would have been a legal necessity.

The deplorable upshot of all this, however, is that all Viktor's models, prototypes, drawings, detailed data, including Professor Popel's original report implying that what might be termed "Negative Friction" was an actuality, have remained the possession of the Donner-Gerchsheimer consortium. That this report was actually part and parcel of this project is confirmed by Viktor's refer- ence to it in one of his reports to Boernerdated 23/24 August 1958.

On the evening of the 17th of September Viktor and Walter were told to prepare foran early start the following morning at 5.45 am. Ready and waiting, nobody appeared until 8.30 am. Gerchsheimer had overslept. In great haste they left for the airport, Viktor being transferred to Totten's car in Sherman. Walter continued the journey with Gerchsheimer, who reminded him once more of the conditions stipulated in the last agreement signed with Donner, namely that all further discussion of implosion and implosive devices in the future was restricted to U.S. personnel. In other words, that once in Europe, both father and son were constrained to total silence on the subject and the associated pro- ject.

Due to this late start, Viktor and Walter arrived at the airport only eight minutes before take-off for New York. Arriving there several hours later, they changed planes and flew to Frankfurt by way of London, where they had to make an emer- gency landing. Always a man to stand by his word or signature whatever the ultimate outcome to himself, on the way back in the plane Viktor turned to Walter and expressed the deep sadness of his innermost being, saying with utter resignation words to the effect that;

"I no longer own my own mind. I don't even own and improve the lot of humanity, died a bro-my thoughts. After all I've done, finally there is ken man. nothing left. l am a man with no future." "They call me deranged. The hope is that Leaving Frankfurt by train a few hours later, they are right. It is of no greater or lesser they arrived in Linz on the 20th of import for yet another fool to wander this September at about midnight. On the after- earth. But if I am right and Science is noon of the 25th of September 1958, five wrong, then may the Lord God have mercy days after arriving home in Linz, Viktor on mankind!!"28

Schauberger, who throughout his whole life had fought so hard to heal the environment Viktor Schauberger - 30 June 1885 - 25 Sept. 1958.

Notes

1. 'IF' ___ * __ If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you, If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting, too; If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or being lied about, don't deal in lies, Or being hated, don't give way to hating, And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise; If you can dream and not make dreams your master, If you can think, and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with triumph and disaster, And treat those two impostors just the same; If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to broken, And stoop to build them up with worn-out tools; If you can make one heap of all your winnings, And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings, And never breathe a word about your loss; If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the will which says to them: 'Hold on!' If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with kings, nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much; If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,

And - which is more - you'll be a Man, my Son! Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936)

'Ursache', when normally it would be joined. By this he intends to place a particular emphasis on the prefix, thus endowing it with a more profound meaning than the merely superficial.

This prefix belongs not only to the German language, but in former times also to the English, a usage which has now lapsed. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, 'ur' denotes 'primi- tive', 'original', 'earliest', giving such examples as 'ur-Shakespeare' or 'ur-origin'.

This begins to get to the root of Viktor's use of it and the deeper significance he placed upon it. If one expands upon the interpretation given in the OED, then the concepts of 'primordial', 'primeval', 'primal', 'fundamental', 'elementary', 'of first principle', come to mind, which further encompass such meanings as:

-pertaining to the first age of the world, or of anything ancient; -pertaining to or existing from the earliest beginnings; -constituting the earliest beginning or starting point; -from which something else is derived, devel- oped or depends; -applying to parts or structures in their earliest or rudimentary stage; -the first or earliest formed in the course of growth.

To this can be added the concept of an 'ur-con-dition' or 'ur-state' of extremely high potential or potency, a latent evolutionary ripeness, which given the correct impulse can unloose all of

1.           The Ages of Gaia, by James Lovelock: W.W. Nature's innate creative forces. Norton, New York 6. Implosion No.7, p.l, "The 1st Biotechnical

2.            Our Senseless Toil, Pt.I, pp.28-29 (see ftnt. 16). Practice" ("Die erste biotechnische Praxis").

3.           Implosion, No.27, p.29 "The Winding Way to Wisdom" ("Der gewundene Erkenntnisweg")

Implosion, No.48, p.27, "Nature's Secrets Unveiled" ("Entschleierte Naturgeheimnisse")

Implosion, No.67, p.l, "Let the Upheaval Begin!" ("Den Umbruch beginnen!").

7. Published 1: Pearson Foundation of Canada, 1949. Transl. by Maj.Gregory Pearson in Outer

5. In Viktor Schauberger's writings in German, the Mongolia 1921 with the Panchen Lama's permisprefix 'UR' is often separated from the rest of the sion. Pub.2: Colin Smythe, Gerrards Cross, U.K. word by a hyphen, e.g. 'Ur-sache' in lieu of 8. ibid.,,p.23, para.73.

1: Who was Viktor Schauberger? 29

9.ibid,. p.24, para.74.

1.       Sec 7.4 spec.ed. Mensch und Technik, Year 24, Vol.2, 1993, wholly devoted to recentlydiscov- ered information on Viktor Schauberger contained in the Swiss, Arnold Hohls' notebook.

2.       A handwritten note, dated July 1936, on the back of a photograph of Viktor Schauberger.

1.     "Return to Culture" ("Zuruck zur Kultur"),

2.     by Viktor Schauberger, p.l.

3.       Implosion, No.81, p.6, extract from letter to Mr. Kroger.

4.       Implosion, No.10, p.30. "Natural Farm Husbandry" ("Naturnahe Landwirtschaft").

5.       Letter from Viktor Schauberger to Josef Brunnader, 20.10.1956.

6.      TAU, No.l44, p.31: Letter (12.Mar.1936) to Dr.Ehren- berger, M.Eng., Research Inst. for Hydraulic Engineering, Ast.Sec'y to the Minister, Federal Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry, Vienna, Austria.

7.      Our Senseless Toil - The Source of the World Crisis ("Unsere Sinnlose Arbeit - die Quelle der Weltkrise"), Pts.I & II, 1933-34: Krystall Verlag,Vienna. Defunct in 1938.

1.            Implosion, No.51, p.23, "What happens next?" ("Wie geht es weiter?") by Leopold Brandstatter.

2.            Implosion, No.29, p.22, "Home Power Generator - an Illusion ?" ("Das Heimkraftwerk -eine Illusion?") by Aloys Kokaly.

3.            Implosion, No.17.

1.           Implosion, No.83, p.20, "Harmony as a Question of Existence" ("Harmonie als Existenzfrage") by Ing.Wilhelm Reisch.

2.           Implosion, No.49, p.17, "The Legacy of Viktor Schauberger" ("Die Erbe Viktor Schaubergers") by Aloys Kokaly.

3.           Implosion, No.93, p.3, "The Death of Viktor Schauberger" ("Der Tod des Viktor Schauberger") by Raimund Lackenbucher.

4.           ibid, No.93, page 3.

5.           ibid, No.93, page 5.

6.           From "The Death of Viktor Schauberger" ("Der Tod des Viktor Schauberger") by Raimund Lackenbucher, 'Neue Illustrierte Wochenschau', No. 8, Sunday 22nd February 1959.

1.          While Einstein is generally credited with its formulation - and it may well have been an almost simultaneous, but independently arrived at discovery - chronologically it was first postulated in 1903 by Prof. Friedrich Hasenohrl (30.Nov.1874-7.Oct.1915), Head of Physics at the Univ. of Innsbruck and later Vienna, Austria, in the form

2.          Since Hasenohrl died in the First World War, he was never able to establish his priority in the formulation of this equation.

7.           Implosion, No.99, p.13. Quotation.

2

ENERGY

2.1 Energy Today

we observe the world around us today, Asigns of deterioration and symptoms of degeneration are everywhere evident. We are engulfed by a concatenation of interrelated crises; crises in energy, crises in the global water-balance, crises in agriculture and, worst of all, crises in Nature herself. Wherever we look, things are not going nearly as well as we have been led to believe. The downward spiral of disintegration seems to be accelerating at an alarming rate, with few if any really concrete proposals or action being implemented to arrest it. All of which provokes the question: Has science, the leading light in all our much-vaunted technologi- cal progress, somewhere grossly erred?

Had science been in tune with Nature, if scientists had truly understood Nature's inner workings, if science itself operated according to Nature's laws, we ought to have an abundance of everything we need, energy, food, water; but we have not! In actual fact, science has been far less successful than it claims. It has failed to take note of Nature's innumerable hints and indicators as to how things should be done and instead has taken the opposite path. This is not to deprecate the sincere and untiring efforts of many individ- uals to improve conditions generally.

The recent activity of an international group of concerned scientists from all continents of the globe is proof enough of this. Under the auspices of the World Commission on Environment and Development and the stewardship of Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, the former Prime Minister of Norway, these scientists contributed their time and combined expertise to a thorough evaluation of the present state of the world, which culminated in the production of a detailed report entitled "Our Common Future"1.

The thinking of many other scientists, however, has been coloured by the increasingly mechanistic approach towards life - Deus ex machina - which is not to imply that all the established facts of science and the painstaking, dedicated research that has been carried out are invalid, but to suggest that their interpretation could perhaps be differ- ent. To date there has been far too much emphasis placed on analysis, the pursuit of minutiae, the development of specialist ter- minology incomprehensible to other scientific disciplines, let alone the rest of a humanity ever subservient to the dictates of a science that has become the infallible new God.

According to Viktor Schauberger, science thinks an octave too low and, due to its purely materialistic approach, neglecting the underlying energetic basis for all physical manifestation, has lost sight of the integrated whole. Prof. David Susuki, the eminent biologist, once stated that there were at least twenty branches of biology, each of which had it own jargon, unable to communicate coherently with the others. The individual feels insignificant in the face of all this vast array of scientific expertise, a condition one has noticed among acquaintances, when confronted by the towering edifice of the appar-ently all-knowing, 'Scientific Establishment'.

30

2: Energy 31

Overwhelmed by this indecipherable complexity and in the belief that any understand- ing was impossible, the public at large has relinquished control over its health and future to the high-priests of science. Viktor Schauberger, however, had other ideas:

The majority believes that everything hard to comprehend must be very profound. This is incorrect. What is hard to understand is what is immature, unclear and often false. The highest wisdom is simple and passes through the brain directly into the heart.2

What use, therefore, is all this analysis if ulti- mately no synthesis results through which all the research can be effectively implemented? There is doubtless an ample sufficiency, nay an oversupply of detail, but what is now of crucial importance to our survival on this planet is that all this vast fund of knowledge should be coordinated and applied practically. Science, however, is by no means solely to blame for this unhappy state of affairs. Politics and power have also played a major, controlling role. The pursuit of profit and power for its own sake, coupled with the nec- essary systems of control, have relegated the mass of humanity to a state of almost total dependency for everything it needs in the way of food, energy, health and all other necessities of life. The artificial procurement, sometimes aided by climatic fickleness, of shortages in commodities, ensures the contin- uance of this dependency. According to Viktor Schauberger, "Capital interest only thrives on a defective economy" and there can be little doubt that the economic system resulting from this manipulation is totally unnat- ural. What there is no shortage of today, however, is misery and privation, two devel- opments which are on the increase world- wide. People despair of improvement and a pall of gloom for the future descends. Not only are parents desperately concerned for the survival of their children, but their chil- dren also view their future with enormous despondency. While millions of our fellow human beings are dying from acute starvation, we are daily aware of the gross, at times incomprehensible, inequities in food distribution; of the 'butter mountains', 'grain mountains', all of which are the result of market forces open to all manner of manipulation. People are saddled with enormous debt, mortgages, loans, interest payments and so on; to a large extent due to the withholding of all systems that would grant them independence. Indeed there are many cases where significant improvements in energy generation, health treatment and agricultural productivity, to name a few, have been suppressed for the sake of the vested interests of those whose natural humanitarian s sensibilities have been corrupted by the lust for power and material gain.

Independence, however, is the last thing

these dubious individuals and mega-

businesses wish to bestow on humanity,

because their ultimate dominance would

thereby be lost. Independent people are free

people and not answerable to control. The

observation of the famous Russian novelist and

philosopher, Count Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy

(1828-1910), is here very much to the point:

Thoughts that have important consequences are always simple. All my thinking could be summed up with these words: 'Since corrupt people unite amongst themselves to constitute a force, then honest people must do the same.' It is as simple as that.

At the forefront of this battle is the control over the systems of energy. The present lamentable condition of the planet, our only home in this vast universe, has now reached such a parlous state that for our own survival we simply cannot afford to allow present methods of energy exploitation to continue. Unless we can arrive at a different way of looking at things, unless science is prepared to adopt a more open and universal approach towards the concept of energy itself and realise that there are more powers unseen than seen, then we shall continue down the sombre road to oblivion.

All his life Viktor Schauberger strove to improve the lot of his fellow human beings and fought an often acrimonious, running battle with academia. Despite their continual, uninformed deprecation by science, his trail-breaking ideas have vital relevance for the present state of the world, and their validity

becomes all the more apparent when one gradually comes to understand the processes of his thinking and the energy processes he describes. This book will elaborate Viktor Schauberger's ideas and practical demonstra- tions for generating energy, improving the quality of water and increasing agricultural productivity for the benefit of humanity. energy consumption of our technical civilisa-

The amount of energy a human being requires for survival over one year is averagely 1,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh). According to Walter Schauberger's calculations a human being operates at the relatively insignificant energy level of an electric light bulb, namely 100 watts. 1,000kWh is also the average amount of energy received from the Sun annually per square metre of ground surface. Theoretically, therefore, all a human being needs to do is to stand on its square metre and obtain its energy from the Sun. Were it able to transmute this energy directly, then its annual energy requirement would be satisfied. This amount of energy, however, is associated with the consumption of 260kg of molecular oxygen (O2) per year, which is equal to 29.659gr of oxygen per hour. These are the amounts of energy and oxygen required by a human being for the maintenance of bodily functions, reproduction, creativity and intelligent thought for a whole year.

The average petrol consumption of a car with a 1.6 lit. engine, however, amounts to between 10—11 lit per 100km. Walter Schauberger has calculated that to travel a distance of 1,000km requires an energy expenditure of 1,000 kWh. Therefore to highlight the ludicrous mechanical efficiency we have so far managed to achieve and of which we are apparently so proud, a car travelling 1,000km destructively consumes the same amount of energy in a few hours that a human being uses far more economically and productively in a whole year. The car, however, does not think, it does not reproduce, nor is it creative. It has none of these abilities. Equating 1,000km travelled with the annual activity of one human being produces a very poor energy relationship.

Once again, the amount of oxygen used per human being per year is 260kg. To drive a car at 50km an hour requires 22.25kg of oxygen per hour, which is roughly 750 times the amount needed by a human being. Therefore as we drive happily along in our cars, we

2.2 Relative Energies

efore addressing the question of energy Band our concepts of it, however, let us make a few comparisons to get things in perspective. The following examplesare intended to show how much the

unknowingly take 750 oxygen-breathing slaves along with us. These slaves, however, do not breathe out nice, healthy carbon-dioxide and water as we do, but they spew out a noxious concoction of poisonous gases.

In a journey lasting eleven hours, all the oxygen required by one human being for one year has been consumed. According to the scientific television program "Quantum" (11 .Oct.89), it has been estimated that there are presently 450 million vehicles in use worldwide. If we multiply this figure by 750, we arrive at an oxygen consumption equal to that of 337,500,000,000 people, about 67.5 x the present world population. We are forced to admit, therefore, that the relationship between our technology and its use of energy is diametrically opposed to that of Nature.

In Australia, for example, the amount of oxygen consumed annually through fossil fuel combustion for the purposes of industry and power generation equals 214,465,670 tonnes of molecular oxygen (O2) [1977 figures]. At aconsumption rate of 0.26 tonnes O2 per annum per person, this is sufficient to keep824,868,073 people alive for 1 year. In contrast, the amount of oxygen consumed by the Australian population over the same period amounts to 4,290,000 tonnes O2, which is 1/50th of the first figure above.

But where does our oxygen originate?Based on Canadian figures for conifer forests, the number of hectares required to produce sufficient oxygen to satisfy the above combined demand at a production rate of 10.0619 tonnes of O2 per hectare = 21,740,990ha or 217,410km2. This area is marginally less than that of the whole of Great Britain = 229,523km2. Australia has a population of about 17 million, whereas Great Britain's population amounts to some 60 million odd. Extrapolated world-wide in relation to total world consumption of oxygen and the rapid eradication of the world's forests, the picture becomes quite horrendous.

Fig. 2.1 Energy, Oxygen Consumption and Production

2: Energy 33

tion is totally out of harmony with that of Nature (see fig. 2.1).

To obtain some inkling of the possible mag- nitude of global oxygen consumption, for example, and to provoke some interest in the question, I have used the figures in Fig. 2.1 as a basis for calculation3. I do not claim any high degree of accuracy, however, because there are so many variables and data involved, which are unknown to me. Be that as it may, accord

ing to my calculations the annual demand for oxygen world-wide could be as much as 38,496,255,232 tonnes, which may be an underestimate. To satisfy this demand would require an area of healthy, productive forest amounting to 38,259,432 km2. This represents 28.3% of the world's total land area of 135,000,000km2, whereas we know the forests are being deci- mated at a precipitous pace. A higher annual rate of O2 consumption would naturally require a commensurately larger area of forest for replenishment. On the other hand, it is also possible that the point may have already been reached where existing areas of forest and veg- etation are insufficient to compensate for what is presently being consumed, thus creating a nett oxygen deficit. While it is normally assumed that the avail- able oxygen pool is so large as to be almost inexhaustible (it comprises 20-21% of the atmospheric gases by volume), it could be mooted that, although the relative proportions of these gases remain the same, their actual atmospheric depth may be diminishing. In other words, when initially measured, the abundance of molecular oxygen may have reached a height of, say, 100km, but due to its rapid and unnatural overconsumption, its overall depth may now have been consider- ably reduced in a manner similar to the drain- ing of a bucket. For those who live in the water at the bottom of the bucket, however, there would appear to be no change to the quantity of available water (the oxygen), until such time as the bucket is empty! Remaining at all times thoroughly immersed until this catastrophic event, they are oblivious to the slow death that inexorably approaches. It would therefore be of great interest to know whether an accurate audit of the residual oxygen pool has recently been undertaken. If not, then perhaps it should be put in hand as a matter of some urgency.

If we now consider the famous Hasenohrl-Einstein equation for energy (E=mc2), in which the amount of energy E in a given system is the product of mass m times the speed of light c squared, then in 1 gram of undifferentiated matter 25 million kWh of energy are stored (fig. 2.2). It matters not what the gram of sub- stance is. It could be of human flesh, of carpet, of wood, of whatever we choose, but in this minuscule gram this seemingly huge and disproportionate amount of energy is concentrated. This means that the relatively minute vol- ume of l cm3 of water contains 25 million kWh of energy. As Viktor Schauberger once said:

More energy is encapsulated in every drop of good spring water than an average-sized power station is presently able to produce.4

We do not seem to know how to unlock it in a creative way, however, because we have failed to make a thorough investigation of natural energetic processes. Our attempts to release this huge potential of energy through atomic fission, through the destruction of natural, resonant systems (atoms), have only created a lethal legacy for future generations, not only for humanity, but also for countless other living things, upon whose existence our own depends.

2.3 The Fateful Choice

wo systems are therefore available to us. TWe are presented today with an extremely fateful choice. We can choose for Life or for our ultimate oblivion. Viewed as evolutionary paths over a long period of time (fig. 2.4), there have been two simultaneous developments, which initially followed almost parallel paths, because humanity's activities were largely in tune with Nature. As the population grew and a scientifically- based technology gradually developed, these two paths began to diverge. In the last 150 years or so, the advance and application of technology has accelerated enormously, with the result that the divergence has become quite dramatic, and the far more subtle energy systems of Nature have been overwhelmed by the ceaseless onslaught of a merciless, mechanistic technology, with the direst consequences for us all.

The upper, rising path is that of the course of natural evolution from the simple to the increasingly complex, building higher, more evolved systems and species, on the foundation of earlier ones. It denotes a path of increasing diversity. It follows the curve of an increase in natural capital, the interest based on the sound economy of the evolution and development of new life-forms suited to the improved conditions, the latter providing the ecological niches for these new life-forms, so that no opportunity is lost for further creative expression. In Nature's super-economical system, in which nothing is wasted, the surplus on her own interest is represented by the various fruits, seeds, cereals, nuts, etc., freely given for the sustenance of the life-forms currently in existence at any given moment. This is the way Nature

2: Energy 35

operates and also the way we should operate, for as Viktor has stated:

"The most natural is always the most technically perfect and the only system economically viable long-term.5

Nature's 100% base capital - the mineral and other resources of the Earth - should be invi- olable. For evolution to proceed, Nature increases her capital by, say 10%, in terms of growth, movement, evolution of new life- forms. We should therefore learn to live off the surplus on Nature's interest on her own capital, which is probably quite ample for our needs. With such a system, stability would increase, because increasing diversity means more legs to stand on, so to speak, and if one leg is accidentally removed, the whole sys- tem does not collapse. The natural system is, and has ever been, demonstrably sustainable. The middle line in fig. 2.4 on the other hand, represents 100% efficiency. However apparently ideal this may be, it is still no solution, because it is like going round in a circle. As a uniform condition it never gets more, it never gets less. It just stays the same. Nature, however, has no use for uniformity; her overriding purpose being constant change and upward transformation. The path we have so far chosen, the lower curve, is one that not only uses energy in an extraordinarily profligate and unsustainable way, but has also placed the whole of the ecosphere under the hard, insensitive heel of economics. Where high forest, rich in a wide variety of interdependent species of tree and animal alike, once flourished, there are now only monocultures, ecological deserts of uni- formity. Where hedgerows, burgeoning with wild life, once surrounded highly productive, largely organically managed fields, there are now vast, wind-swept acres in which only one species of crop is grown without rotation, propped up with artificial fertilisers which ultimately ruin the soil. Almost daily we hear that one species or another is in danger of becoming extinct or has already become so, thereby reducing the diversity so vital to the health and existence of everything on this planet.

This is a downwardly accelerating curve, the steepness of descent increasing in step with the broadening application of our unnatural systems of energy. Quite apart from their manifest inefficiency, the systems we exploit pollute the very air we breathe. A conversation in the 1970s between Walter Schauberger and Dr. Fritz Kortegast, the head of research and development for Mercedes-Benz, revealed that the greatest efficiency hitherto achieved with their most sophisticated engines amounted to only 13% of the total energy input. In other words, if 100 energy-units are initially input into such a car, the useful energy that produces forward propulsion amounts to only 13%, the remain- der being lost through the dissipation of heat. If such a car were a business, it would very quickly go bankrupt.

But such is the business we have created, namely a form of technology bolstered and fostered by vested interests that consumes energy through the massive exploitation of unrenewable resources. The continuing use of such a technology must therefore inevitably lead us into a state of instability, bankruptcy, disorder, devolution, deteriora- tion, decay and ultimately death. If we observe all that is taking place around us, all these things are happening, and all because we are actually imprisoned in an energy sys- tem which is self-annihilating. In our present mechanistic system, an investment of $100 is reduced to 13 productive dollars. Reinvested in the same system at 13% efficiency, these $13 return only 1.69 usable dollars.

But we humans, presumed arrogantly to be the highest level of life on this planet, do everything to destroy the very basis of our existence. If the myriads of different species or qualities, representing every element of life, are viewed as a heap of dry sand, the highest quality in the form of humankind sits right at the top of the heap. However, when lesser qualities are removed from the lower parts, oil extracted here, coal there, deforestation here, overfishing there, then it is inevitable that the relatively few grains of 'human' sand, these extremely soft and vul- nerable creatures astride the top, must start to sink down, because the lower grains of sand, the various supportive qualities, are gradually and inexorably being removed. It is a known fact that poor quality water will only support poor quality fish. The same applies to us. If we allow the natural capital of the environment to depreciate, our own human capital depreciates commensurately.

The use here of the word qualities rather than the apparently more appropriate quanti- ties is important and of great significance. Indeed in the view of Gallilei and Johannes Kepler, Nature could only be conceived of in terms of mathematics and qualities. In Nature no two things are identical. As noted earlier, Nature's supreme condition is that of constant change and transformation and her greatest law states that Repetition of the identical is forbidden. 1 + 1 does therefore not make 2, because no two natural systems are wholly identical and thus cannot be summated.

Repetition would mean the repeat of an energetic or experiential process that has already happened, in which no new development, no advance, however slight, is possible. Identical repetition is therefore wasteful of energy, and Nature wastes nothing! In an evolutionary sense, there is quite obviously nothing to be gained from mere repetition. Something can only be gained and progress made in the development of a new process or system, even only marginally different.

Having now discussed some of the more technical aspects, let us look at the question of energy from a different point of view. Viktor Schauberger frequently stated that we humans are blind, that we are extraordinarily superficial creatures who look/but never see. Most of our seeing is concentrated to the point of recognition only, but not on deep examination. Relying on outward appearance alone, everything we observe we deem to be the totality. We mistake effect for cause. Whatever we perceive, however, all move- ment, all the external garb of manifestation, are secondary effects. The primary cause we never see. The primary cause is energy.

2.4 But What is Energy?

hat is the essential nature of energy? WWhere do we begin to search for the answer to this age-old question? Surprisingly, despite all scientific investigation, nobody seems to have come up with a definitive answer! All we know of are the ways in which energy manifests itself. We can see that energy is involved in flowing water. We can see that energy is associated with creating clouds. Energy is active in an engine combusting petrol or gasoline. But what is it? What is its essence? What is this sublime process that always seems intimately con- nected with motion?

An honest physicist would answer, We don't know. We might also ask a bishop or a priest, What is spirit or the substance of spirit? While many propositions may be put forward, in the final analysis they may also be forced to admit their ultimate ignorance. It could be argued, however, that what is called energy by the scientist and spirit by the priest are essentially the same. Its origin, however, remains problematic.

Since we cannot actually see energy, but only its outward manifestation, its origins may well lie in a reality beyond our senses. Perhaps energy is the culmination of a desire to create, to afford every possibility for the gaining of new experience. While there are many extremely high energies of which science is aware and has actually measured, there are also forms of energy of which we are aware, but which defy all scientific quantification and measurement. These are too subtle and cannot be detected by even the most sophisticated scientific instruments.

Although it must recognise their existence, for scientists are also human beings, science cannot accurately measure various human energies such as thought, desire, love, enthusiasm, hatred, anger, etc., all of which are emanations from the human psyche and motivators for action. While science may be able to detect brain activity related to these phenomena, it cannot actually measure their intrinsic power, size, frequency or vibrational state, nor their true point of origin. As immaterial forms of energy emanat- ing from other-placeness - the physical void

- which Viktor Schauberger claims operate according to the law of anti-conservation of energy, they are therefore conveniently

2: Energy 37

ignored. This is because they do not conform to, nor are calculable by the famous Hasenohrl-Einstein equation (fig. 2.1) and its derivation, the law of conservation of energy. As H.H. Price, Wyckham Professor of Logic at Oxford (Hibbert Journal, 1949) comments:

We must conclude, I think, that there is no room for telepathy in a materialistic universe. Telepathy is something which ought not to happen at all, if the materialist theory were true. But it does hap- pen. So there must be something seriously wrong with the materialist theory, however numerous and imposing the normal facts which support it may be.

Goethe too says of scientists: "Whatever you cannot calculate you do not think is real." To place the matter in its proper perspec- tive, Sir William Grove (1811-1896), Professor of Experimental Philosophy at the London Institution, states: "Science should have neither desires nor prejudices. Truth should be her sole aim." He goes on to predict that "...that day is fast approaching when it will be confessed that the 'forces' we know of are but the phenomenal manifestations of realities we know nothing about, but which were known to the ancients and - by them worshipped."6

This neglect of immaterial energies, or life-energies, whose tremendous power has long been recognised by earlier cultures and individuals variously as Ch'i, Ka, Prana, Mana, Archeus, Vis Vitalis, may also be because, as Viktor Schauberger often said, scientific thinking should take more account of higher meta- physical realms and is unaware of what he called the 4th and 5th dimensions. Ch'i, for example, is the life-force that moves along the energetic meridians of the body and which was pinpointed several thousand years ago by the Chinese and used for healing. Acupuncture, a treatment using fine needles to correct bio-energetic imbalances of Ch'i in the body, is still not recognised by orthodox medicine, although widely used in China and in many Western countries by accredited prac- titioners and more open-minded doctors.

Taking this as our cue in the search for these other dimensions, we might begin with the highest and most powerful form of natural energy experienced by human beings

- love. If this is raised several octaves, dimensions and magnitudes higher, we may begin to perceive the outlines of what energy actually may be, namely the outpouring of unconditional love for the purposes of manifold experiential fulfilment.

1.            Our Common Future: Oxford Univ.Press, Oxford.

2.            From list of Viktor Schauberger quotations in the Schauberger archives.

3.            ROUGH CALCULATION FOR ORLD ANNUAL CONSUMPTION OF XYGEN (O2)

Let us assume that the Australian industrial O2 consumption of 214,465,670 tonnes is typical for all industrialised countries. Using Australia's popula- tion as a basis for the extrapolation of industrial O2 consumption world-wide, therefore:

Australia's population = 17,000,000 World population = 5,000,000,000.

If all the countries of the world were equally industrialised, then by multiplying the Australian figure by the above extrapolation coefficient the amount of world industrial O2 consumption (100% industrialisation) would be

Notes

214,465,670 tonnes O2 x 294.117 = 63,078,137,856 tonnes O2 annually.

The world is not 100% industrialised, however, so instead we shall take a more realistic figure of 30% industrialisation. The world's annual industrial consumption of O2 would therefore be

30% of 63,078,137,856 tonnes O2 = 18,923,442,176 tonnes O2

To this must be added:

The O2 consumption of 450,000,000 vehicles assuming, an average use of 5 hours per day per vehicle:

0.02225 t/O2/hour x 5hrs x 365 days x 450,000,000 vehicles = 18,272,813,056 tonnes O2

Human O2 consumption = 0.26 t/O2 x 5,000,000,000 = 1,300,000,000 tonnes O2

This makes an annual total of = 38,496,255,232 tonnes O2

Using the Canadian figure for the O2 production of conifer forest of 10.0619 tonnes/hectare, or 1,00619 tonnes/km2, the area of forest required to satisfy the above oxygen demand would be:

The total world land area is estimated at 135,000,000km2. Therefore the percentage of total world land

area that would be required to replace the above annual consumption is:

1.           Our Senseless Toil, Pt.I, p.28.

2.           From an article by Viktor Schauberger, "The Development of Steppeland in Germany" ("Die Versteppung Deutschlands").

3.           The Secret Doctrine, by H.P.Blavatsky, Adyar Ed. 1971, Vol.2, p.234: Theosophical Pub.Ho., Adyar, India.

3

NEW DIMENSIONS OF ENERGY

3.1 The Origin of Energy

Let us take as an hypothesis that the ur- original1 source of energy is a radiant emanation from the Cause of Causes, from God, or better still, from the Eternally Creative Intelligence to avoid any gender implications thereafter referred to as the ECI). Of necessity an entity such as the ECI must constantly create on the process of Its own evolution. Energy might then be viewed as an expression of the Will-To-Create, as the agency through which the ideas of the ECI become manifest. This could take the form of an infinitely high-energy emission of unconditional love or spirit pulsating over a wide range of frequen- cies at hyperluminal speeds. Radiating from the Central Ur-Cause or the ECI, it operates in the most sublime of realms, in all directions to all parts of the unmanifested Universe. Not being limited by the constraints of matter, the speed of light or the conservation of energy law, it is therefore present in all parts of the Universe simultaneously, and because of its total unconditionality or as pure, unpurpose- prescribed energy, it can be freely employed either and equally for 'good' or 'evil'. This is no straight-line movement, however, for this would imply uniformity. Uniformity cannot beget life, since life is created out of differences, out of a state of non-equilibrium which, in this instance is generated by the radiating pulsation of ethereal mind energies at diverse frequencies. In the process of emis- sion, the interaction between these various frequencies produces certain periodicities or cyclical effects. On the one hand this results in

the formation of more densely concentrated energy domains where their respective cycles or wavelengths converge (field energy densification), and on the other, in regions of diffuse, more rarified energy where they diverge (field energy attenuation).

Due to this now non-uniform energy distribution comprising zones of greater and lesser energy density, the way in which the formerly unimpeded, primary outflow of energy moves, it gradually becomes influenced through the creation of denser vibratory matrices to which it is no longer directly harmonically related. Deflected from its initially linear radiating path on encountering these lower vibratory resistances, the outward movement of energy progressively assumes a more curvilinear con- figuration in its descent into less spiritual planes. According to the 'angle' at which these emissions impact on the denser domains of resistance, they are imparted a right-hand or left-hand direction of spin. From an originally undifferentiated state, the energetic entity thus created becomes endowed with either a positive or negative charge and enters the lower worlds of duality (fig. 3.1).

The difference between these various levels and dimensions of creative, formative energy may best be illustrated by a simple analogy. By replacing the Eternally Creative Intelligence with the Sun (our principal source of life-energy), one could say that the solar wind (waves of high-energy particles) impinges on the Earth's atmosphere, creating turbulence (air-waves) due to thermal and energetic reactions. This represents the first demodulation from a high energetic state to a

39

3: NewDimensions of Energy 41

motion of lower velocity and intensity. These reactions in turn generate waves of yet lower velocity, but greater physicality, on the sur- face of the ocean, a denser medium with more harmonically stabilised energy than air. Finally,. the ocean waves form nearly static ripples in the sand on the ocean floor. The whole arrangement not only clearly demonstrates the creative power of higher energies and higher dimensions over lower ones, but also the distinct energetic separations between them in terms of the matter-energy or matter-spirit balance. For the sand-ripple dweller, the fluid movement of the water above it is all it is aware of. The causal dynamics of the air above the water are almost beyond its ken, although it may be dimly are of this higher state of energy. As human beings we are immersed in a 3-dimensional world, but yet have an inkling of a possible 4th dimension in the form of time. What spacial magnitude is occupied by a 5th dimension, perhaps the dimension of thought and feeling, is well-nigh inconceivable to us. It may indeed pos- sess none of the familiar 3-dimensional aspects of length, width and depth, but all the same it IS. Although these various levels of being will be elaborated in more detail in the following chapter, a simple computer graphics pro-gramme may perhaps give an insight into these other dimensions of energy. With it a circle is drawn, whose centre lies about 50cm above the centre of the screen (fig. 3.2). As the sequence progresses, the initial, visible portion of the circle, represented by a series of arrows, is drawn from the bottom centre of the screen towards the right. After a certain period the line of the circle again appears from the left to close with the point from which it began. What is visible is only part of the circle. In its operation a computer embodies rela- tively subtle energetic processes. While the visible part of the circle stops at the right-hand side of the screen, the computer continues to draw it, as is proven when the circle finally re- emerges from the left-hand side of the screen a few moments later. Where is the space in which the circle is being drawn when it is not on the screen? This somewhere, this nowhere, occupies a dimension which perhaps has no size. It has no physical magnitude.

How big is a thought? What is thought? What is an idea and what is the substance of an idea? What is the process which motivates us to do something? We first get an idea, then we develop the concept and then, and only then, are we in a position to fulfill our desire to implement it. Our natural aspiration is to be creative. The force, the impulse, which is the motivator for us to create, is an unseen energetic process.

There are those who believe that the world came into being purely accidentally. There are others who believe it was created by God or the ECI. The truth, however, probably lies somewhere in between and in a certain sense this could be viewed as a reflective process. That is to say that the ECI, imbued with the desire to create, is constantly seeking for new knowledge gained through the experiences of Its multifarious creations in order to create even better universes. As human beings, we could thus be construed as the creative, cellu- lar organisms within the host entity of the ECI, which contribute to Its overall develop- ment, although having no inkling of the spaces and higher planes in which the ECI operates. As a corollary of this, there is therefore no absolute truth as such, for however profound and absolute it may appear to be, such a truth must move and develop as its discoverer, the Eternally Creative Intelligence, Itself evolves.

3.2 Sound as a Formative Force

t could therefore be argued that all physical Imanifestation develops as the product of focused energy emanating from a seed of desire, of Will-to-create. This manifests itself as vibrations carrying the image or the idea of what is to be created and that form and that form only can arise which corresponds faithfully to the idea of the thing itself or, in other words, the particular pattern of vibra- tions. Fig. 3.3 taken from Hans Jenny's book Kymatic/ Cymatics2, gives a graphic example of this in relation to the formative force of sound as the source of the idea or in- formation. Here a 0.5mm thick, square metal plate sprinkled with sand is vibrated at a fre- quency of 7,560 cycles per second. Following the sequence from Plate 1 to Plate 6, the grad- ual evolution from the unformed to the final form can be traced. This beautiful image is the one directly associated with the formative influence of 7,560cps.

As a form of energy, sound has long been attributed a form-creating capacity, indeed in the Christian religion the coming into being of the world was ascribed to the 'Word' of God; in the Hindu religion to the 'Beat' of Rama's drum; in modern scientific parlance, to the 'Big Bang', all of which are sound phenomena. Prayers, chanting, Indian ragas, the uttering of mantras are believed to produce various effects, some of which are as concrete in form as the photographs in fig. 3.3 show. That sound also has an effect on the quality of a structure, organic or otherwise, is also subconsciously reflected in our own language. We say that a structure is 'sound' or 'unsound', meaning that it is either safe or unsafe. Similarly a person is said to be of 'sound' or 'unsound' mind, reflecting their creative or destructive propen- sities. Jericho was supposedly destroyed by destructive sound resonances.

In his book The Secret Power of Music3 David Tame makes a convincing case that the fall of great civilisations was always preceded by the degeneration of popular music, which seems to be about where we are now. In this regard, research carried out by Dr. John Diamond in the field of behavioural kinesiology (BK)4, yields some interesting insights. A member of the International Academy of Preventive Medi- cine, Dr. Diamond found that while the deltoid muscle of a healthy adult male can normally resist a force of 40-451bs, its strength is reduced to 10-151bs through the negative effect of certain types of rock music, such as heavy metal and hard rock. In contrast to a more natural rhythm, where the beat emulates that of the heart, with emphasis on the first beat, i.e. DA-da-da or 'LUB dup rest', as he puts it, in the above type of music this empha- sis is reversed, i.e. da-da-DA, which conflicts with the body's natural pulsation and in poetry is known as an 'anapestic beat'. As Dr.Diamond states:

..one of the characteristics of the anapestic beat is that it is stopped at the end of each bar or measure. Rock music that has this weakening effect appears to have this stopped quality; it is as if the music stops and then has to start again, and the listener subconsciously 'comes to a halt' at the end of each measure. The anapestic beat is the opposite of the dactylic or waltzlike beat, which is DA-da-da, and in which there is an even flow.

He further asserts that these forms of music and unnatural rhythms cause switching in the brain's responses, which induces 'subtle perceptual difficulties' that may well manifest themselves in children as decreased performance in school, hyperactivity and restlessness; in adults as decreased work output, increased errors, gen- eral inefficiency, reduced decision-making capac- ity on the job, ...in short, the loss of energy for no apparent reason.

Moreover, exposure to such music also appears to create an addiction for more of the same plus a desire for debilitating foods. To this can be added the deleterious effect of the fashion prevalent amongst young people today, when dark glasses are worn both day and night and even on overcast days. As a result, the eye never receives the full spec- trum of natural frequencies for which it is designed and which it requires for the health

3: NewDimensions of Energy 43

and stability of those parts of the brain asso- ciated with it. Apart from other factors, this may well account for the alarming increase in violence, disease and mental instability. Sunlight as a vital factor in health is dis- cussed in chapter 16 in relation to the findings of Dr. John N.Ott. One of the reasons for this debilitating effect is that each molecule of the body has its own resonant frequency, which can be stimulated, over-stimulated or suppressed by different light frequencies and vibrations (sounds). What long-term effect the ceaseless bombardment of the body's very sensitive, electrically charged cells by the veritable salad of electro-magnetic emis- sions in the way of high-tension cables, radio, television, radar, microwave ovens and trans- mitters, etc. has on the overall health is a matter for serious conjecture.

3.3 The Phenomenon of Resonance

ound or resonance therefore does seem to be associated with creative or destructive phenomena. Resonance is the free transfer of energy or the sympathetic vibration between one system and another without loss, and is the function of mutually precisely harmoni- cally related frequencies. As such, it and the phenomena, physical or otherwise, that it pro- duces, are the result of the periodic repetition of a given number of impulses, which can be categorised as vibration, oscillation, or rota- tional periodicity.5 In fig. 3.3 the formative effects of resonance in the form of sound are clearly apparent and, in other plates in Hans Jenny's book higher frequencies are shown to give rise to increasingly complex perceptual patterns6. From this it follows that the state of order of a given physical structure manifested through resonance is dependent on a particu- lar frequency level or standing-wave pattern of vibrations, higher vibrations producing higher forms and vice versa. Therefore if the intensities of those resonant interactions that furnish the idea and energetic basis for more evolved manifestations of life are lowered artificially or by other means, then the general quality of life- forms degenerates, sometimes reaching the extreme condition of extinction. This is because the overall level of vibration, which contains the formative patterns explicit to the creature or form of life in question, has demodulated to frequencies too low to support these formerly highly complex structures.

As we survey the world around us today this is precisely what appears to be happening

- the quantitative thrust of our technology and ideology is pressing downwards towards uniformity, to a vibrationless state, which is equiv- alent to zero energy and quality. Thus species after species is disappearing simply because the ambient creative energetic matrix, which has to do with upward evolution, has been rendered inoperative. But while it may appear that all we now have left is all that we can still preserve, namely an increasingly limited spec- trum of possible life-forms, all that is needed to reawaken the creative urge of Nature is to raise the level of human spirituality and natural awareness, in order to produce an outflow of positive, creatively potentiated energy.

Higher spirituality is synonymous with a higher level of energy. As this energy is renewed in the human psyche it permeates and enriches the noosphere, the immaterial realms of thought, the abode of the Will-to-cre- ate, and the complexity of the creative ener- getic matrix is raised as a result. New species or those previously extinct may then begin to reappear in physical form as a reflection of this higher creative dynamic. Ultimately we there- fore have no need to fear for the future on this planet - that the spectrum of life will constantly diminish - because, as we attune our own harmonic vibrations more and more with those of the ECI, then in the process we will reactivate the evolutionary vibrancies through which all life will be revivified and reborn.

Incidentally in regard to resonance per se the number 29 seems to have some strange affin- ity with the Earth and the planetary system for, in the course of my research I discovered some peculiar coincidences, which are per- haps worthy of note and are set out in fig. 3.4.

To return to the theme in hand: As the will- to-create intensifies, the focus becomes more concentrated, extraneous elements are ejected and a channel is opened to the free passage of creative energy, resulting in an increasing charge (life-force), energetic density and

3: New Dimensions of Energy 45 3: New Dimensions of Energy 47

rotational velocity; in other words, a vortex of life-energy evolves, into which more and mode and higher qualities of energy are drawn for the generation and development of the form itself (fig. 3.5). Since it is first gen- erated in a particular location or moment in space-time, this vortex bears the imprint of the conditions obtaining at that spot (its reference point in the space-time continuum) and is therefore a totally unique phenomenon with its own individual and characteristic frequency or vibration, or combination of vibrations. Its inherent stability and eventual physical manifestation is assured as long as its originating idea is unchanged and remains concentrated. These interacting vibrations must be in harmony with each other and also in resonance with the particular conditions of the place of genesis, so that a given life process or creature can actually grow and evolve. This is the function of the various chakras of the human body, which are represented as flower-like vortices whose stems enter the body at vari- ous points, such as the heart, in order to con- duct the particular variety of higher energies suited to the enhancement and health of the organ in question. Harmony and resonance are prerequisites for growth and development; lower stages of harmony in the form of lesser individualities providing the firm and stable substructures upon which the higher structures are built. The ECI is thus everywhere at once, and creates all the various levels of existence through the formation and concentration of life-force into harmonic vortices of matter from Its infinite ocean of energy. That Goethe was very much aware of this is evident from the following poem8:

All things into one are woven, each in each doth act and dwell As cosmic forces, rising, falling, charging up this

golden bell, With heaven-scented undulations, piercing Earth from power Sublime. Harmonious all and all resounding, fill they

universe and time! Amidst life's tides in raging motion, I ebb and flood - waft to and fro!

Birth and grave, eternal ocean, ever-moving, transient flow. A changing, vibrant animation, the very stuff of life is mine,

Thus at the loom of time I sit and weave this

living cloth divine.

In Its universe, therefore, there is no energy crisis!

From this it could be construed that it is due the interaction of manifold harmonic vibrations ultimately manifesting into tight radius and extreme rotational velocity that material existence emerges. A good example of this is the spiralling air masses of our weather systems, in which the very large and extended gyrating air-masses have relatively little dense substance, a large radius of action, very little material form and very slow rotational velocities. As they gradually converge, however, their speed and force increases and their radius reduces.

Ultimately they resolve themselves into almost physically palpable energetic entities such as tornadoes and waterspouts, whose core at the base, where the rotational velocity is greatest, is very nearly hard, physical, matter. From being ephemeral, they have become almost tangible. Their upper roots originate in relatively low-density atmospheric conditions, which can be equated with a less structured and more radially dynamic energy-state, since this zone is more exposed to high-energy solar radiation, whereas the base of the tornado penetrates into greater atmospheric densities which are synonymous with more structured, rotational conditions of energy. The effective density of tornadoes is such that their natu- rally occurring vortexial energies have been known to bend steel railway lines.

Using this as an analogy for the structural development of the atom, which is of course infinitely smaller and has a much higher rate of rotation and vibration, then it becomes clearer how physical matter could come into being through the focusing of energies at one particular point. Therefore in almost nothing is almost everything. Taken to its extreme, it could therefore be said that in nothing is everything; that all manifestation emerges through the 'eye of the needle' as it were, from

Fig. 3.6 Sea shells: energy focussing at a point.

the high-potency, formless void of the ECI. Our world is thus, indeed, a world of illusion! The sea-shells shown in fig. 3.6 are an example of this focusing of energy, for their gradual growth in size is due to the application of creative energy from and at a point, from the minute ovum in which initial fertili- sation took place. On the other hand, the fourth shell-like form indicated by the larger arrow was also created, this time more rapidly, by the application of energy from and at a point, in this case a hammer on the edge of a piece of glass!

3.4 The Creative Energy-Vortex

ince we still do not know what energy is Sand for the purposes of discussion, fig. 3.5 represents a possible energy path. As the energy moves along its desired path, it draws matter into its wake and forms the vessel through which it wants to move. A river does exactly the same thing. The capillaries in our bodies likewise. The blood is the external manifestation of an energy path. What we see is the blood, but we do not see the energy that moves it. The blood is all that matter which is too coarse to be taken to the energy's final destination. Energy therefore creates the form of the path through which it wants to move and along which it can move with the least resistance.

If we desire to build a house, we certainly do not want one in which it is inconvenient to move about. We build it to suit ourselves and our way of living. As has been mooted earlier, all natural systems are evolved as a result of the pattern of energy, or the idea that sought to create them in the first place. All this may reek of metaphysics, but it is difficult to express the notion otherwise.

Once the external form has been created, a point is reached where the matter used to cre- ate it is now too coarse to continue along the energetic path and is left behind. Viktor Schauberger often referred to this Earth as a huge dung-heap and said that all the matter, all the living things upon it, were only the fecal matter ejected by the various energies and their forms of movement, because they could not carry the material any further. In other words, whatever energies contribute to an increase in life-force are retained in immaterial form, while the remaining energetic material is expelled as waste, analogous to the daily defecation of human beings. Having been extracted from food, apart from metabolic functions, these often very subtle immaterial energies are used for the produc- tion of thought processes. From a certain point of view, the human body could there- fore be seen as a hollow energy path, a complex toroidal vortex for the transmutation of matter-energy into physical and intellectual activity.

3: New Dimensions of Energy 49

In line with this view, energy and its move- ment are unquestionably the primary cause, the prerequisite for physical manifestation. Everything we see around us, the trees, the flowers, all are the outside casing of the for- mative energy path. According to Viktor Schauberger, while the main body of a tree's energy lies above it, the tree can only grow to a certain height, because the energies are only able to draw up the physical mass of the tree so far in their wake.

Continuing our discussion of the vortexial movement of energy, let us observe just how beautiful such a naturally structured vortex is (fig. 3.7). Such phenomena are not often observed. What a marvellous structure! It is not handmade, but it is the path along which water likes to move. Each of these segmental whorls is fractionally smaller than the one above, the mathematics and proportions of which can be explained using the system developed by Walter Schauberger.

Let us briefly examine various illustrations taken from a book, beautifully penned and printed in 19089 (figs. 3.8-3.10). In fig. 3.8 the movement of the fish is shown to be undulating and sinuous, and the woman walks with a swinging gait. What should be noticed in particular is that none of these shapes has any connection with the straight line, circle, point or cylinder, or with any of the mechanical systems we presently employ for the gen- eration of energy. Nevertheless, they are all energy paths. They were all created by a movement of energy and express the way that that particular form of energy desired to move in the manifestation of the original or originating idea of the thing itself.

It is now becoming more and more imperative that we understand how energy moves in order to create conditions similar to those achieved with double-helical pipes in the investigation carried out by Professor Franz Popel at the Stuttgart Institute of Hygiene in 1952 on Viktor Schauberger's initiative (see chapter 14 on water supply). It is vital for our survival that whatever methods we adopt in a future technology should always emulate the natural movement of energy and Nature's sys- tems of motion, growth and development. In her systems involving dynamic energetic processes, she always appears to select a spiral form of movement and its vortical derivatives, which are represented in both macrocosm (fig. 3.11, a galaxy, in this case overlaid by Walter Schauberger's hyperbolic spiral) and microcosm (DNA molecule - fig.3.1210).

Nature's workings could therefore be described not as 'wheels within wheels', but as 'whorls within whorls'. It is all the more extra- ordinary, therefore, that despite so much

3: NewDimensions of Energy 51

evidence of this vortical, cyclical, helical move- ment, which lies everywhere in Nature before our very eyes, science has never ascribed any fundamental importance to it or tried to copy it. It has been too immersed in the euclidean ele- ments of mechanics with little knowledge or conceptions of organics. We have never taken the time to understand Nature's dynamics enough to be able to exploit them.

Today, science is only just developing a new (but in all truth, a very, very old) field of research that it now calls 'power fluidics', which is investigating the vortex as a means of controlling the flow of liquids. It is high time that we developed a technology, whereby these processes are truly understood. This should be termed an 'Eco-Technology' rather than 'Biotechnology', the latter having been brought into disrepute through gene manipulation and experimen- tation. Perhaps Ec2otechnology would be an even better term, for it embodies Viktor Schauberger's concept 'C2', signifying 'Comprehend and Copy Nature'.

Notes

1.           See ftn.5, chap.l, concerning the use of the prefix 'ur'.

2.           From Kymatik/Cymatics by Hans Jenny, photos by Hans Peter Widmer: Basilius, Basel, Switzerland (now defunct).

3.           The Secret Power Of Music by David Tame: Inner Traditions, Rochester, VT, USA.

4.           Your Body Doesn't Lie, (Behavioral Kinesiology) by Dr. John Diamond MD: Harper & Row, New York, 1979.

5.           Referring once more to Planck's constant whereby energy can only be emitted or absorbed in whole-numbered quanta, since Nature never seems to lack energy for her various functions, they must therefore be closely associated with resonant states. While the present system of manipulating large numbers using scientific notation, i.e. the first five or so significant figures multiplied by 10 to the power of something, may simplify calculation, the establishment of an exact value or periodicity upon which true resonance at high frequencies is founded becomes rather hit and miss.

For example, were a given resonant state giving rise to a particular phenomenon to have an actual value of say 6,622,458,316 Hz, then with scientific notation this would be expressed as 6.622 46 x 109 Hz. If written out in full, the value of the latter would be 6,622,460,000, slightly higher than the former. Subtracting the original number from this truncated value leaves a deficit of 1,684 Hz from the true state of resonance. If the creation of the above phenomenon was the object of the exercise, then for lack of the missing 1,684 vibrations, it would be impossible to reproduce the original phenomenon exactly. In terms of the achievement of resonant states, in my view it is actually the last few digits that are significant, not the first. With the use of computers, however, this should be a simple matter to rectify.

With regard to the above whole-numbered harmonical aspects themselves, the value of

-34,Planck's constant of 6.62 x i.e. the whole number 6 plus the decimal value of 62, would

1.             

2.             

3.             

4.             

seem to be at variance with Nature's use of integers. This value was no doubt founded on the cal- ibrated values of the measuring instruments available to Planck at the time. These calibrations were probably quite arbitrary originally in the same way that the standard gauge railway track owes its dimension (4ft 8 1/2in 1.435m) to the dis- tance between the wheels of the first steam engine, 'The Rocket', built by Robert Stephenson. Since Planck's constant is fundamental to the interpretation of physics, it might be extremely rewarding if its present value could be replaced with some fundamental unit or integer value. In so doing some very interesting integer rela- tionships might surface between what are now apparently disparate magnitudes through the conversion of their current values to accord with this new unit value for Planck's constant. Perceptual patterns or structures possessing qualities as a whole that cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. Collins English Dictionary. The Ghost of 29 Megacycles, by John G. Fuller: Signet ed. 1986, New American Lib., New York. Describes research of Dr. George Meek, an American engi- neer, and the German electronics engineer, Dr. Hans Otto Konig, into communication with the recently deceased. The optimum frequency for enabling the dead to communicate with the living and vice versa by super-imposing their voices on the carrier wave, was 29 megacycles. On January 15th, 1983 Radio Luxemburg invited Dr Konig to broadcast a live-to-air experiment in such communication, which much to the consternation of all concerned, was largely successful. From Viktor Schauberger's article, "The Ox and the Chamois", pub. by Prof. Werner Zimmermann in TAU magazine, No.146, June 1936, p.30. Design In Nature by J. Bell Pettigrew: Longmans Green, London, 1908.

10.

"DNA Double Helix" p.101 of The Molecular Biology of the Cell by B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff,

K. Roberts & J.D. Watson: Garland, New York.

4

WHAT IS MOTION?

4.1 The 'Original' Motion

If one observes the Universe as a whole, ie. from 'Big Bang' to 'Black Hole', as it were, a form of motion is evident that Viktor Schauberger called "cycloid-spiral-space-curve motion". He also referred to it as the "original" motion, not only in a primor- dial sense, but also as a "form-creating" dynamic. Shown in its quintessential, archetypal form in fig. 4.1, which depicts the cre- ation of three successive universes, the 'cycloid-spiral-space-curve' embodies an ini- tial out-breathing, centrifugal, curving expansion of undiscriminating, creative energy unconditional love) from a point, which results in the generation of countless individ- ualities and energetic systems. In The Secret Doctrine1 Helena P. Blavatsky describes this phenomenon stating that:

An out-breathing of the 'unknown essence' produces the world and an inhalation causes it to disappear.

Its culmination is an in-breathing, centripetal implosion of the concentrated energies and experience of the created individualities who now seek reunion with their source, the ECI, bringing back with them all the myriad experiences they have gained. Once all has reverted to the ECI via the 'Black Hole', then that universe, or that part of the Universe at the end of the Black Hole, leaves our space- time and enters a highly ethereal continuum, the magnitudes and dimensions of which we cannot conceive. What happens then is open to all manner of speculation. Possibly the new

experiential information is absorbed and digested by the ECI in order then to create a new universe. The very word 'Universe' signifies a single curve (uni=one, versum=curve). The fact that the configuration of this curve may be a complex combination of descending and ascending, involuting and convoluting, expanding and contracting spiral movements does nothing to detract from its uniqueness or unit quality, since from inception to culmina- tion its path is continuous. This curve is an energy-path and the essence of energy is ceaseless movement. In its eternal trajectory from spirit to matter (outward breath) and from matter to spirit (inward breath) it permeates all creation. It is all creation!

Apart from its inherent pulsation, it would be impossible to dissect this eternal movement into discrete segments, for the point at which one portion of this sublime curve ceases and the next begins cannot be defined mathematically, whatever the subjective view. Therefore this unique, primordial, cre- ative curve embodies the unbroken path of evolution, of cyclical, pulsating out-foldment and in-foldment, as it spirals in and out of all the myriads of apparently inextricably interconnected and interdependent individual systems in the cosmos, tying and uniting them all in one inscrutable Gordian Knot. We are therefore unequivocally all part and par- cel of the One and any harm of whatever kind we inflict on others or to the planet, we not only inflict on ourselves, but the rest of the cosmos as well.

This creative force and its dynamic have already long been known to Eastern

55

esotericism and is referred to by Mme. Blavatsky as follows2:

Kundalini Shakti: the power or Force which moves in a curved path. It is the Universal life-Principle manifesting everywhere in Nature. This force includes the two great forces of attraction and repulsion. Electricity and magnetism are but manifestations of it. This is the power which brings about that 'continuous adjustment of internal relations to external relations'', which is the essence of life according to Herbert Spencer, and that 'continuous adjustment of external relations', which is the basis for the transmigration of souls, punar ianman (re-birth) in the doctrines of the ancient Hindu philosophers.

Even the tools of common language unwittingly (or wittingly) allude to the character of this spiral movement. When we e\-(s)pire, we leave this our 'mortal coil'. When we are in- spire-d, we feel drawn to higher ideals. Our spir(e)it is raised and we are sucked into the upward spiral. Similarly through re-spir(e)- ation the ionisation balance of the body, which varies according to the time of day, is adjusted by the proportional ionisation of the air indrawn through the nostrils, which due to opposite directions of rotation, is nega- tively ionised by the left nostril and posi- tively by the right nostril. Sneezing, therefore, may perhaps be a compensating process, through which high opposing charges resulting from over-ionisation are reduced to zero.

Interestingly enough, while on the subject of the body, the German word for the spinal column, the fundamental supporting struc- ture of the human body, is 'Wirbelsaule', which translated directly into English, means a 'spiral' column. Similarly each one of the vertebra is referred to as a whirlpool or a vor- tex. Clearly, the Germans have long had a completely different view of the central struc- ture of our bodies. Whereas we see it as a stiff, more or less rigid, physical structure, they see it more as an energy path. This has obvious associations with the Hindu concept of Kundalini, the name given to the two ser- pents that dwell at the base of the spine, whose rising energises and spiritualises the various higher chakras (ethereal vortices) of the physical body and whose entwinement on Mercury's staff (the caduceus) empowers him as Messenger of the Gods. Nature too, provides us with countless examples of dynamic spiral growth and movement in the form of galaxies, cyclones, whirlpools and tornadoes, of which we, in our blindness and arrogance, fail to take note in our pursuit of mechanical perfection.

According to the late Dr.Tilman Schauberger, grandson and expert on Viktor Schauberger's works, creative, formative motion is:-

Open, goal-oriented, structured, concentrated, intensifying, condensing, dynamic, self-organising, self-divesting of the less valuable, rhythmical, cyclical, sinuous, pulsating, inrolling, and centripetal = the cycloid-spiral-space-curve.

4.2 Forms of Motion

ithin this framework there are four fundamental forms of movement: all natural dynamic motion will comprise one or more of four types - orbital, rotational, toroidal and circulatory (fig. 4.2). All of these are combined in the processes of natural movement as illustrated in the bottom image

4: What is Motion? 57

- here the diameter of the internal passage of energy varying according to the pattern of flow. Fig. 4.3 depicts the dynamic body of the solar system over one full cycle of Saturn. It is not the fairly static, disc-like structure we are accustomed to think of, but is actually a vortex with each planet describing its own spiral path about the Sun, which is itself moving in the direction of star cluster 'Hercules' at about 20km per second.

When we come to spiral-vortical motion itself, we can further subdivide it into another two forms. Viktor referred to radial-axial and axial->radial (actually tangential-> axial and axial->tangential) motion, which are terms of his coinage in this particular con- text. As illustrated in fig. 4.4 axial->radial motion signifies an initial movement around a centre, which subsequently transfers to a radial movement towards the exterior; it is thus centrifugal and a movement from the inside outwards. At the centre of the wheel, for example, there is no motion but, with increasing distance from the centre, the speed of motion and the tendency towards disinte- gration also increase. This is why the wooden wagon-wheels of earlier days had a steel band around them to hold them together. It was called a 'tie-er' (= tyre or tire) and tied the wheel together.

In Viktor's theories, also proven practically, with this form of movement the resistance to motion increases by the square of the starting velocity. In other words, if the radial distance from the centre of rotation is 1 and the resistance is 1, when the radius is doubled, the resistance is quadrupled and the rotational period halved. If the radial distance is 3, the resultant resistance is 32 (=9) and the rotational velocity reduced to a 1/3rd, and so on. However if the rotational velocity of such a centrifugal system is to be maintained at a constant level, then a continual, wasteful and expensive increase in the amount of input energy is required to overcome the resistance, and the whole system becomes less and less efficient. Not only this, but it creates discordant noise and the more noise a device makes, the more it operates against the laws of Nature.

The dispersion of energy, therefore, is asso- ciated with noise or heat, as the case may be.

This is typical of our forms of technical move- ment, in which there is initially no motion at the centre, but with increasing distance from this point, velocity and resistance also increase. The axial->radial centrifugal form of motion can thus be defined as divergent, decelerating, dissipating, structure-loosening, disintegrating, destructive and friction-induc- ing. While the destructive diffusion of energy results in noise, the creative concentration of energy, however, is silent. Indeed, as Viktor asserted on many occasions, "Everything that is natural is silent, simple and cheap."3

Upon reflection, this statement is quite obvious. All the concentrated energy involved in the growth of the forest, for example, all the innumerable chemical and atomic interactions, are none other than energetic processes, movements of creative energy. The silence of the forest is indicative of the extraordinary concentration of creative energy. Its destruction, however, is always associated with the horrendous racket of chain-saws, heavy machinery and the like.

Whereas our mechanical, technological sys- tems of motion almost without exception are axial->radial and heat- and friction-inducing, Nature uses precisely the opposite form of movement. When Nature is moving dynamically, the slowest movement occurs at the periphery and the fastest at the centre. One only has to observe the dynamics of a cyclone or a tornado. Her form of movement, therefore, is centripetal or radial->axial, moving from the outside inwards with increasing velocity, which acts to cool, to condense, to structure.

Radial->axial motion can therefore be defined as convergent, contracting, consolidating, creative, integrating, formative, friction reducing. If the starting radius is 1 and the initial resistance is 1 on an inwinding path, when the radius is halved, the resis- tance is (1/2)2 = 1/4 and the rotational periodicity, frequency or velocity is doubled. The dynamics of evolution must therefore follow this centripetal, radial->axial path, for if the opposite were the case, all would have come to a stop almost before it started.

Force is the application of energy to do work. The magnitude of a force F is the prod- uct of a mass m times acceleration a (F=ma).

As it stands, this equation is not particu- larly interesting, because it tells us nothing about the all-important type of acceleration, for one form leads to destruction and the other to creation. It is therefore necessary to differentiate between them, which is most simply done by superscripting the accelera- tion a with either a positive or negative sign,

i.e. a+ or a-. This would indicate whether the radius of rotation is expanding or the form of acceleration is pressure- and friction- intensifying (+ = axial->radial, centrifugal acceleration) or conversely whether the radius of rotation is reducing, creating a form of acceleration that is suction-increasing and friction-reducing (- = radial-> axial, cen- tripetal acceleration). The equation derived using the latter Viktor Schauberger consid- ered to be the one for determining creative force. Whereas with centrifugal acceleration a+ more power must be applied in order to accelerate or to maintain the same velocity, in the case of centripetal acceleration a- the velocity and energy increase automatically. This produces Viktor's formative force, or those upbuilding energies from which all life is created.

In this context we could usefully re-examine the Hasenohrl-Einstein equation (E = mc2) in connection with other energy-determining equations. While their general premises apply to mechanical systems, there is some doubt as to their relevance to living systems. As presently interpreted E = mc2 requires that the amount or energy in the Universe to be finite and assumes the speed of light to be constant. Here, however, we are reminded of Walter Schauberger's contention that the absolute speed of light is not constant (p.24), but dependent on the frequency-related radius of its spiral path; the smaller the radius of rotation (frequency of periodic- ity), the greater the velocity and intrinsic energy of the radiation (light) and vice versa. Such a nonconstancy in the speed of light - as a factor in quantifying energy or mass would seemingly negate the doctrine of universally finite energy and the conservation of energy law. Leaving this aside for the moment, let us now consider the standard, textbook equation for kinetic energy or work W, where W is the product of (mass m x velocity v2) divided by 2 (W=1/2*mv2), we discover something very interesting. This equation also relates to energetic activity and, analogous to the Hasenohrl-Einstein equa- tion, determines the quantity of energy used in our technical, mechanical systems. Here however we suddenly find that the amount of available energy in the form of work W is halved. In this equation mass is still repre- sented by m, whereas c is replaced by v both terms relating to the time and speed taken to travel a given distance. The expression mc2 can thus be equated with mv2. In the Hasenohrl-Einstein equation, however, there is no division by 2, so the amount of available energy always remains undiminished.

But when intrinsically the same energy equation is applied to technical energetic processes and purposes, the amount of use- ful energy is apparently halved. From textbooks we learn that energy is indestructible, but merely changes form, this reduction being attributable to the encounter with a resistance of some kind (deceleration) or through the conversion of energy into heat, or both. In consideration of what has been stated above, and, Walter Schauberger's rein- terpretation of C2, perhaps the real reason for this loss is the exploitation of wasteful axial-radial, centrifugal motion. In contrast, radial-axial dynamics operate according to the law of the anti-conservation of energy mentioned in chapter 1, wherein friction - and therefore heat - constantly reduces and velocity increases automatically, because the type of motion is in conformity with natural ener- getic (spiritual) law and not the mundane, physical laws of mechanics.

4.3 Thesis, Antithesis and Synthesis

ith vortical motion still fresh in our Wminds, let us begin our appraisal of the elements of thesis, anthesis and synthesis by examining the dynamics of a tornado. The tor- nado descends from a lower to a higher atmos- pheric density and generally takes the form of a hyperbolic funnel or cone (fig. 4.5). The smaller

4: What is Motion? 61

the radius, the higher the rotational velocity. It is another example of how Nature moves from the outside inwards in terms of increas- ing energetic effect and of generating power. In the eye of the tornado or a cyclone, there is an upward movement - suction. Suction and pressure are the two forces here interacting, each being the counterpart of the other, the opposite sides of the same coin which, taken together represent the wholeness or united, undivided phenomenon. They could thus be viewed as two discrete entities emanating from a single generative principle.

In terms of dialectic thinking, which seeks to fathom the extremes of logical thought, they could also be interpreted as the two counter-concepts of argument (thesis) and counter-argument (antithesis). According to the German philosopher, George W. F. Hegel (1770-1831), dialectic thinking refers "to the process of thought by which such contradictions are seen to merge themselves in a higher truth that comprehends them".4 The existence of this higher truth or unifying principle, however, appears to have eluded general scientific thinking, which conceives of reality more in terms of laws than mutually interactive reciprocities.

Perhaps therefore we need to adopt a more dialectic approach to our appraisal of the dynamics and forces of reality. This should encompass both thesis and antithesis, the two apparently conflicting elements that find their synthesis or wholeness in their mutual combination and interaction. However, there seems at present to be what might be called a 'scientific Berlin Wall' separating these opposing, but complementary magnitudes (see fig. 4.6), which in the light of the above should perhaps be advantageously dismantled as its namesake already has.

Dialectically speaking we could therefore say that: heat x cold = unity = the wholeness.

Indeed it requires no great stretch of the imagination to realise that the condition of health, reproductive and otherwise, of all life-forms is founded on the delicate balance between heat and cold specific to the organism in question. Some types of fruit and seeds cannot germinate properly unless they have been exposed to frost. Life therefore is not merely a question of heat, but also of its inseparable counterpart -cold.

Fig. 4.6 lists a few examples of such reci- procities, in which, generally speaking, thesis is the quantifiable aspect and antithesis the qualifiable aspect, both of which are repre- sented in the equation formulated by Walter Schauberger, which incidentally is the simplest equation for the rectangular hyperbola (see fig. 11.4):

where 1/n stands for the quantitative aspect, n for the qualitative aspect and n itself is equal to any integer or whole number from zero to infinity.

The answer is always 1, echoing Albert Einstein's observation that "Nature is the embodi- ment of the simplest conceivable mathematics", and indeed the actual mathematics could not be simpler, representing as it does the reciprocal relationship between the two terms. Viktor Schauberger maintained that any given phenomenon always has its counterpart or counter-aspect, and both components should always be taken into account. The manifesta- tion of all natural forces is the result of the interaction between two opposites, neither of which ever reaches totality in the lower realms of duality (the physical world), for they can only become total when they unite within their unifying, non-physical, governing principle.

In the physical world each component of a pair of forces can only attain 96% of its boundary or extreme condition. Once this point is reached, then its opposite force grad- ually begins to gain strength. It is an action similar to the Chinese concept of Yin and Yang. When Yang reaches the point of exhaustion (96% of its capacity), then Yin intervenes and gradually increases in strength. As a case in point, in the creation of

4: What is Motion? 63

a vacuum, there is always a residual 4% left of the medium to be evacuated, a figure that can only be further reduced by an enormous expenditure of energy; 100% - 4% = 96%! Thus Chaos x Order = 1. Without chaos (undifferentiated, unstructured matter or energy, or unordered, unmetamorphosed unconditional love) there could be no basis for the creation of order (differentiated, harmonically-structured matter or energy); therefore the foundation of order is chaos. Recently chaos theory has come very much to the fore.

Matter and Spirit or, as they are more com- monly expressed, Matter and Energy are also a unity. While a human being or a living sys- tem represents a certain quantity, it also possesses certain energetic and other imma- terial characteristics, and the totality is the combination of both aspects. Then there is also the conservation and anti-conservation of energy, which was touched on earlier. The so-called 'Law of the Conservation of Energy' requires that energy be indestructible; that the amount of energy in the universe is finite and at all times constant; that there can neither be more, nor less energy. It is merely transformed from one form into another.

On the other hand, according to Viktor Schauberger, the cycle of interactive pulsation between opposite forms of energy can actually be interrupted through the application of radial-axial dynamics, in which one form of energy or element, be it cold or oxygen, is taken to its extreme, non-spacial condition. In this case the law of anti-conservation of energy applies, i.e. power is virtually unlimited as it is obtained from higher realms.

Egoism and altruism are also dialectic opposites, thesis and antithesis. On examina- tion of the above table, however, the antithe- ses of Quantity and Quality are probably the most important in their ramifications because, through our contemporary devel- opment, through our logical, ideological, philosophical development, we have today come to attach a great deal of importance to quantity at the expense of quality, of greed at the cost of generosity, even to the extent of proffering the philosophy of greed as something totally acceptable morally and ethically.

However, it is always the qualities which are the defining factors. In itself quantity is relatively unimportant. In its simplest form it is unformed, amorphous mass - just weight. This quantitative drive has led us into a mass-production mentality. It has also taken us into the mode of reducing diversity and increasing uniformity principally for economic and control purposes. And herein lies a very great danger, for as Montesquieu stated in the 18th century, "The inner corruption of liberty shows itself first in uniformity"'.

We therefore need urgently to develop a system where the emphasis is far more on the qualitative side, for quality is the differentia- tor and animator of life.

Another pair of antitheses, not considered by science, are Gravitation and Levitation. Levitation is not taken into account at all, consideration being given only to gravitation, although a levitational force is basic to Nature. Viktor Schauberger once commented wryly that instead of asking himself what caused the apple to fall to the ground, Sir Isaac Newton should have asked how it got up there in the first place! What else if not levitation enables a tree to grow upwards against the action of gravity? Were there no levity, the tree would just spread out horizon- tally over the ground in a green amorphous mass. It does thrust skywards, however, and does so in response to another force operating in the opposite direction.

This is life-force, the quickening and uplifting energy; the force responsible for uprightness and right-side-upness of things. It is the rising power that imbues all healthy living things, particularly the more youthful, with a feeling of lightness, of relative weightlessness, removing all sensation of ponderousness of the limbs. With increasing age it gradually weakens, making the more elderly conscious of the weight of their bodies and the greater difficulty of movement. When this levitational force is extinguished, so too is the life-force of the body, which then dies.

When we consider these interdependencies and the illustrations of spiral forms in Nature (see figs. 2.10-2.12, chapter 2), we can see that the dynamics of the universe are therefore caused by an inherent imbalance, since

4: What is Motion? 65

movement is always occurring somewhere between one extreme and the other. There can be no state of stable equilibrium, which would signify immobility, uniformity and stasis. Were such the case neither develop- ment, nor evolution would be possible and the whole condition of the Universe would be unchanging and unproductive, which is manifestly not the case.

4.4 Phi or the 'Golden Section'

The eminent biologist Ilya Prigogine once stated that all natural movement arises out of a state of imbalance, of non-equilib- rium. Non-equilibrium is a pre-requisite for movement and evolution in all its forms, and a state of equilibrium is therefore impossible in Nature. Yet we find that certain symmetries do occur, nevertheless. The pine cone shown in fig. 4.7 represents a condition of 'balanced

imbalance'. The apparent symmetry of the pine cone at the same time embodies a dissymmetry in that from the left-hand side to

the right, its form encompasses five spirals descending and eight spirals ascending.

In terms of integers or whole numbers themselves, uneven numbers are generally considered male and even numbers female, since even numbers are divisible by two (mother + offspring). In the pine cone this gender aspect or duality on the one hand is represented by the five descending spirals of male energies or higher rotational velocities, since within the overall length, or cycloid- spiral-wavelength as it were, of the pine cone, they achieve more rotations. The eight ascending spirals of female energies, on the other hand, gradually being aroused by the male forces, are slower moving, making only one full rotation over their common wave- length. Between them a state of harmony, or resonance, comes into being in relation to their respective energies. Where the two systems of spirals cross; where they combine or negate each other, the seed of future pine trees, the new life, is formed.

The actual proportion of five male spirals to eight female spirals or 5:8 forms part of the

The symmetry of the pine cone demonstrates the condition of "Balanced Imbalance" which arises out of the harmonic interaction of two antithetical, complementary, but oppositely charged forces. The 5 positive male spirals of energy descend towards the 8 rising negative female spirals of energy. Where these cross each other a union of both forces occurs and there the seed of the new life is to be found. The male forces decelerate and the female forces accelerate to arrive at a mutual state of resonance.

so-called Fibonacci series, which progres-sively and with increasing accuracy, mathe- matically defines the proportion of the 'Golden Section', also known as Phi, or which becomes almost constant in the ratio of 1:1.618033988. Together with Pi

the 'transcendental number' describing the circumfer- ence of the circle, this is one of the so-called 'Perfect' or 'Divine Proportions'. Pi has been given the term 'transcendental', because no end to the sequence of numbers after the decimal point has yet been found, even though computers have been working on it for years. It is assumed to be of infinite length and therefore in this sense is a magni- tude beyond time and space. Phi on the other hand, is more down to earth and is also found in the linear proportions of the pentagon (fig. 4.8). Phi is frequently expressed in many of Nature's creations, and by varying the angle between the adjacent radii (their relative lengths conforming to the Phi proportion), a number of natural spirals (fig. 4.9) and leaf- shapes (fig. 4.10) can be created. Phi is also manifested in the structure of the human body. If the length of the hand has the value of 1, for instance, then the combined length of hand + forearm has the approximate value of 1.618033988. Similarly the proportion of upper arm to hand + forearm is in the same ratio of 1:1.618033988, or

In my studies of Phi from an energetic point of view, it seems always to be associated with the transmutation of energy into form, since this proportion is reflected in so many of Nature's creations. In recognition of this peculiarity, I have come to call it the 'Transmutation Number'.

From another angle, the two spiral systems in fig. 4.11 have a common wavelength, dynamically viewed as cycloid-spiral-space-curves, since they curve out from their com- mon axis and eventually return to it over the full length of the pine cone, the eight female spirals having a slower rotational period than the five male spirals. Within this wavelength, there are points where they interconnect cre- atively. Such a point I call the zero-point, since it is the point where both male and female energetic attributes die or are temporarily suspended in order that new life can be created.

The zero point is where all motion ceases and where all motion begins. It is a point of extremely high potential in the same way that the string of a musical instrument is still in a state of tension, of sound-creating potential, even though it is not vibrating.

Here, therefore, we have two systems of opposing, but complementary energy which create a symmetry, although this is created out of unequal forces. Referring to the func- tion of the dialectic magnitudes set out in fig. 4.6 (p. 63), generally speaking those in the right hand column should prevail over those on the left for evolution to proceed produc- tively. That is to say, the effect and function of the right hand aspects of each dialectic unity should predominate. Viktor estimated the correct proportion between them to be 1/3rd to 2/3rds respectively. The ancient Chinese also considered an unequal relation to be the one most propitious for the harmonious unfold- ment of life, their ratio being 2/5ths Yin to 3/5ths Yang. However in view of the manifestation of Phi in so many of Nature's creations, the proportion of 1:Phi is probably the more cor- rect, since as a proportion of slightly more than 1:1%) it lies between the two other ratios of 2/5:3/5 (= l:1 1/2) and 1/3:2/3 (= 1:2). In fig.

4.12 the relative magnitudes of these forces are represented by Weight B = 1 kg (left hand column aspect) and Weight A = 1.618033988kg (right hand column aspect). Weight A is at a distance of l/Phi m or 0.618033988 cm from the pivot and weight B is 1 m away. Weight B exerts a moment about the pivot calculated as lkg x lm = 1 kgm. Weight A exerts the same moment, however, since 1.618033988kg x 0.618033988m also equals l kgm. The seesaw of life, as it were, is thus in a state of balance even though the absolute force of one magnitude is greater than the other. The resultant downward force is the sum of these two weights and equals 2.618033988kg, which equals (1.618033988)2 or Phi2.

Through the interaction of these two proportions the unstable dynamic balance in Nature and her energetic processes is achieved. Were it not for this tentative bal- ance no forward progress would be possible, much in the same way that tightrope walkers cannot actually put one foot in front of the other unless they are in a state of balance. At a more sublime level this also represents what the Buddhists call the 'Golden Middle Way', the path of tranquillity, compassion and contemplation unassailed by the vissitudes and extremes of life.

Viktor Schauberger attached a great deal of importance to this relation, stating that the extreme egg-form suited to his apparatuses was to be found within the pentagon, which is the Phi polygon. Viktor never actually stated how he obtained this egg-shape. Fig. 4.13 shows how it may be drawn using six pins and a loop of string, although any variety of egg-shape can be precisely determined using Walter Schauberger's hyperbolic mathematics.

4.5 Magnetism and Electricism

lectricism and magnetism are two other Ecomplementary, but antithetical forces, the latter being the one that circulates through and around the Earth on the polar axis (fig. 4.14).5 In Viktor's view, however, no true magnetism as conceived today existed in the physical world. What did exist was 'biomagnetism'. Viktor saw magnetism and its higher aspect as the uplifting, upbuilding, creative and levitative form of energy. Therefore, wherever magnetism is mentioned later, the properties of bio-magnetism are also inferred. However, in the physical world neither magnetism nor bio-magnetism are permitted to reach their extreme values because, at the same time the destructive, dismantling, disintegrative, debilitating energy of electricity (similar to electrolysis) applies the necessary brake. Viktor termed this form of energy 'electricism', its higher aspect being 'bio-electricism'.

Overall, however, bio-magnetic energy or bio-magnetism must be slightly in excess of the electrical energy, or electricism, in order that evolution can proceed. Were it otherwise, there would always be less and less creative energy. Viewed in this light, the so-called Van Allen radiation belts girdling

Super-dynamic state "cool" kinetic energy

Super-passive state "cool" potential energy

At all points where male and female spirals cross and where radius and angular velocity are equal or in a harmonic relationship, both charges (positive-male and negative-female) cancel each other out, or fuse together to create new life, to bring forth seed, which is the encapsulation of the DNA/RNA gene programme for the structuring of the new manifestation.

Such a point is the "ZERO-POINT", the eternal place where all motion ceases and from which all life springs forth.

Fig. 4.11

4: What is Motion? 71

the Earth therefore represent the electrical component of this symbiotic interaction between bio-magnetism and bio-electricism, which together produce the necessary pulsa- tion,. the hallmark of life and living things. Although in this diagram their respective magnitudes are shown to be constant, neither achieves its maximum value at the same time as the other. When the electrical energies expand to their maximum, relative to the sys- tem as a whole, the bio-magnetic energies are reduced to their minimum. They can therefore be seen to be reciprocal and their mutual interaction can thus be interpreted by the equation

where 1/n = electricism or bio-electricism, and n = magnetism or bio-magnetism. According to Viktor Schauberger this oscillation between magnitudes is of such high frequency that it appears as a state of rest.

Referring to fig. 3.1 in chapter 3, "New Dimensions Of Energy", concerning the ur- original source of energy, electricism and bio- magnetism and their respective allied forces of gravitation and levitation, also have their counterparts in the field of human experience and the slow development of higher con- sciousness. Analogous to the full dynamic cycle of the tornado described earlier, a young, evolving soul's initial evolution lies in the progressive spiralling descent from its spiritually highest self down through the mental and emotional planes, finally entering the physical body.

Here in its primitive, undeveloped physical state, the ego becomes involved in selfaspected activities, in self-awareness, in self-ishness, wherein it succumbs to the ego- centric drive for the acquisition or 'encirclement' of material attributes. Possession and physical sensation become the all- important purpose of life, to the extent that some earlier societies 'encircled' their oppo- nents, as it were, by eating them, in the belief that the consumer would thereby acquire the additional attributes of its victim. Although unconsciously connected to its spiritual origins, but having meanwhile become oblivious of them, the ego's immaterial energy and driving force (mind), still sourced from its higher self, is devoted towards greedily accumulating material illusions of well-being, drawing them all into its tight personal orbit. Now in intimate contact with and closely surrounded by the objects it has a-mass-ed, a feeling of dissatisfaction, of something miss

4: What is Motion? 73

ing, gradually surfaces from the unconscious and the soul eventually discovers them to be hollow and devoid of actual tangible substance, as is the centre of the tornado. All at once the former static security of physical matter vanishes and the realisation slowly dawns that true reality, security and peace lie

in the dynamics of the higher immaterial realms.

In the soul's descent into matter, the bio-magnetic forces, while acting to maintain stability and life, were not uppermost and contributed only to the tightening of the circle around the Self. Once the boundary condition of materiality is reached; once the acquisitive, gravitational impulse is exhausted, the soul begins to resonate more and more with its higher aspects as the ever- present bio-magnetism finally and inevitably must gain the upper hand. In the same way that it creates the updraught in the centre of the tornado, these bio-magnetic forces begin to draw the soul upward. As its power increases, bio-magnetism accelerates this uplifting process and levitates the soul to the source from whence it came. As it rises up through the various planes of higher energy and spirituality, the soul's vibrational rate or frequency progressively increases and its motion reverses direction. It now changes from axial, self-centred rotation to radial expansion and in the process enters into an increasingly harmonic relationship with the rest of the Universe.

Finally reaching the level of infinitely high vibration, which is synonymous with a state of infinite harmony, it becomes one with everything; it loses its individuality as it once again unites with its originating source. Having now completed its long, arduous and often painful journey into matter; having become aware of the vacuity of physical substance, it has become filled with the selfless love arising from total non-attachment and adds its small contribution to the eternal radiation of unconditional love throughout the manifested and unmani- fested universe.

4.6 Other Dimensions of Energy

Amongst the antitheses listed on the table on p. 63, Viktor viewed certain pairs such as heat and cold, pressure and suction, expansion and impansion, electricism and magnetism, centrifugence and centripetence, gravitation and levitation, as being similar provenances of energy, but separated by octaves. Therefore cold, suction, impansion, centrifugence, magnetism (actually bio- magnetism) and levitation are all related magnitudes. Endowed with specific vibra-tional energies and powers, these antitheses are the agencies or self-organising, intermediate, vibratory matrices of immaterial energies by which the gap between Will-to-create and creation, spirit and matter, and idea and manifestation is bridged. In The Secret Doctrine these forces are comprised in the concept of 'Fohat'.

Fohat is the 'bridge' by which the 'Ideas' existing in the 'Divine Thought' are impressed on Cosmic substance as the 'laws of Nature'. Fohat is thus the dynamic energy of cosmic ideation; or regarded from the other side, it is the intelligent medium, the guiding power of all manifestation. Fohat is the mysterious link between mind and matter, the animating principle electrifying [or bio- magnetising - c.C] every atom into life.6

In the attempt to describe these subtle energetic essences with terminology more familiar to readers than Sanskrit, it became necessary to coin various new terms under the collective term of 'ethericities', the word 'ethericities' itself referring to those supra-normal, near non-dimensional, energetic, bio-electic, bio-magnetic, catalytic, high-frequency, vibratory, super-potent entities of quasi-material, quasi-etheric nature belonging to the 4th and 5th dimensions of being. These ethericities are further categorised as 'fructigens', 'qualigens'', 'dynagens'.

These respectively represent those subtle energies whose function is the enhancement of fructification (fructigens), the generation of quality (qualigens) and the amplification of immaterial energy (dynagens). According to their function or location these may be female or male in nature. There are thus female fructi- gens and male dynagens, for example. The female attributes, however, are principally related to the magnitudes in the right hand column in fig. 4.6. In their aggregate these are the primary prime movers of creation and in the human mind enthusiastic or inspired thought gives rise to the formation of the immaterial dynagens that ceaselessly provide the motivating energy for external activity, thus totally confuting the Energy Conservation Law which requires that the amount of available energy be finite. To obtain some insight into what may be the relative magnitudes of the various levels of energy or vibratory energetic matrices here involved, it may be enlightening to refer to comments in The Secret Doctrine7 concerning the 'Keely Motor', a free-energy device constructed by John Worrell Keely, which operated through the creation of a 'neutral centre', or in Viktor Schauberger's terms, a 'biological vacuum'.

We are told that Mr.Keely defines electricity 'as a certain form of atomic vibration'. In this he is quite right, but this is electricity on the terrestrial plane, and through terrestrial correlations. He estimates:-

The vibrational level of the so-called etherici- ties would probably lie somewhere between the inter-atomic and inter-aetheric in the above table. Moreover they may well func- tion at frequencies that can be beneficially or detrimentally affected by human thought. It is a known fact, for instance, that the level of white blood corpuscle production can be sig- nificantly influenced by the positive or negative attitude towards life of the human host. The extent to which the collective human psyche may influence these ethericities and their proper function may well be far greater than we imagine.

Imprisoned - as we have been led to believe

-within our physical reality by the speed of

4: What is Motion? 75

light (299,793,000 metres per second or m/s), and since we are also here concerned with cer- tain dimensionalities, it might be more useful were we to attempt to express what may be even vaster differences between the various planes of the higher realities by using squared, cubed, quadrupled, etc. multiples of the speed of light c expressed in metres per second. At the same time we might also begin to get some notion of the primary, creative and formative supremacy of such high, yet extraordinarily subtle energies, for the higher the frequency of a given vibration, the shorter its wavelength and the greater its intrinsic energy and power. In this regard I have deliberately avoided using scientific notation as many readers will find it confusing. Recalling the brief discussion of the effect of sound in chapter 2, let us for the moment equate c1 above with simple vibration as the agency of physical manifestation. Energy on the other hand, through which the physical manifestation is animated, is determined using c2. In striving to obtain a more graphic concept of the possible structure of the various ener- getic and spiritual levels of reality, we could therefore say that: Vibration (= c1) cannot take place without energy (= c2), but energy cannot manifest itself without form (= c3). Having cer-tain 3-dimensional connotations, here c3 brings to mind the morphogenetic fields of Rupert Sheldrake8 which, as vibratory matrices pos- sessed of certain properties and potential, are the immaterial energetic agencies that engen- der the emergence of a new species. As the configuration of the formative pat- terning (the design) of a given progenerative matrix becomes 'hardened', as it were, or perfected through its frequent reiteration, each successive reproduction of the entity in ques- tion becomes increasingly easier, its character

and appearance at the same time becoming more and more well-defined. Such a form, however, cannot be created without a design (= c4) and the design cannot be conceived without the idea (= c5). As Plutarch states:

An idea is a being incorporeal, which has no subsistence by itself, but gives figure and form unto shapeless matter, and becomes the cause of the manifestation. (De Placit. Philos).

The existence of the idea demands an intel- lect (= c6) and intellect requires a higher con- sciousness (= c7), all of which are enclosed one within the other like Russian dolls, c7, the Eternally Creative Intelligence, must neces- sarily lie at the very centre, the hub, in order to regulate and be aware of all it surveys, always ready to develop new systems to fill new needs or to gain new experiences.

As an architect I have long been associated with processes of design, the end-product culminating from recurrent movements between the dialectic opposites of analysis and synthesis. A building does not just happen, but is the physical outcome of a great deal of mental activity in realms of unknown dimension. What eventually results is the synthesis of the interaction of various imma- terial energies and imagery, themselves vibrations of a kind. For example, a kitchen is not merely an assembly of various elements, although viewed purely theoretically if all the elements of sink, stove, refrigerator, etc are placed in one space, then the material parameters of a kitchen are fulfilled. If by accident they were disposed in a certain configuration, then the space as a kitchen might actually work. However, to ensure as far as possible that this space is both aesthetically pleasing as well as functional, then it must be designed.

Here we come up against the long-held materialistically founded conviction that every creature on this planet evolved solely through processes of natural selection: that whatever shape, colour or form it has, is merely the result of accidental interactions and the influ- ences and demands of the environment in which it has to exist. Although natural selection may play a certain role in the physical evolvement of the genetic base, any intelligent direction or control of evolution and development is totally excluded. Some creatures, fish, birds and flowers for example, are particularly breathtaking in their beauty, in the various proportions of shape and colour they embody, and seem to refute this hypothesis entirely. Their physical appearance is very hard to explain in terms of purely mechanistic and environmental demands.

The intricate geometry and exquisite form of many flowers speak far more about intention than random happenstance. The sheer magnificence of the peacock, for example, defies all rational explanation from a natural selective point of view. Its colour could not have evolved for purposes of concealment and self-protection, because the gleaming turquoise iridescence of its breast-feathers loudly declares its presence to all predators. Its tail too, with several superimposed layers of variously patterned feathers, capped with single quills upon which the famous 'eyes' flutter and sway, is difficult to construe as having evolved merely for the purposes of courtship. As far as the peahen's attraction to the male is concerned, it seems unlikely that one or two fewer layers of tail feathers would make much difference. So why all the layers?

What, apart from increasing the diversity and majesty of life, is the purpose of a peacock, if not purely for the sake of introducing exquis- ite beauty into this world for the delight of those entities whose immaterial sensitivities can appreciate it in all its aesthetic splendour? How else would evolving human beings be able to develop any aesthetic sense or learn what beauty and proportion is unless some examples were provided for the purpose?

Today new species are continually being dis- covered whose form, behaviour and other characteristics are totally suited - and with such perfection - to the surroundings in which they live. Each has its ecological niche, as it were, and fulfils a function contributing to the enrichment of the whole panoply of life and yet all this apparently happened by accident of Nature, a Nature, however, to whom we have ascribed certain laws. What formulated these sublime and mathematically elegant laws, if not some form of intelligence far beyond our own? For laws cannot evolve by accident or by themselves. What entity other than such as the ECI could have a high enough overview of affairs in order to perceive yet another space, yet another possibility, into which it could infuse new experiential life in the form of an ideally suited creative design?

Let us try, therefore, to think at least one octave higher and instead of developing extremely complex theories based on the morbid logic of random interactions, let us entertain the notion that things are perhaps much simpler than we perceive, for as Albert Einstein is reputed to have stated, "The simpler a theory is, the more it is to the point".

Notes

1.           The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky, Adyar Ed.1971, Vol.1, p.71.-1971), Theosophical Pub. Ho., Adyar, India;

2.           Ibid, Vol.1, p.333.

3.           From list of Viktor Schauberger quotations in the Schauberger archives.

4.           The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford Univ. Press 1971.

1.           Interplanetary Particles and Fields (diagram by Dan Todd), by James A. van Allen, © 1975 by Scientific American, Inc.

2.           The Secret Doctrine above, Vol. 1, p.81.

3.           Ibid, Vol.2, p.286.

4.           The New Science of Life, by Rupert Sheldrake: Blond & Briggs, London, 1981.

5 THE SUN

5.1 The Light and Temperature of the Sun

he source of energy that supports all life on this Earth, our Sun1, needs to be examined. In a sense it is also the spiritual centre of our planetary system, Johannes Kepler, the great astronomer famous for his three laws of planetary motion, not only considered it to be a magnet which has connotations with the attributes of centripetence, cold and levitation men- tioned in the previous chapter), but also believed that as an immaterial body its energy, and by extension that of the whole planetary system, was derived from and gov- erned by the realm of the spirit.

In theosophical teaching the Sun is the abode of the Logos, the spiritual entity that administers and orders the planetary system. Viktor Schauberger held similar views about it, but in its relationship to the Earth he also considered it to be the male fertilising impe- tus for life on this planet, as will be shown later. In addition he made assertions about the Sun, which are Copernican in their ramifications. As part of the Pleiadean system our Sun, a fairly average star, revolves around Alcyone, taking about 180 million years to complete one orbit. Its speed in relation to the largely hydrogen-filled space through which it passes is around 48,280km/hr and it is presently moving in the direction of the Hercules system. It has a diameter of 1,392,530km, roughly 110 times greater than that of the Earth. Its magnetic poles also swap over every 11.2 years as part of the well-known magnetic sun-spot cycle and it pulsates, like something alive, expanding and contracting by about 3km every 160 minutes (see analogous description of a dipole in fig. 6.11, chapter 6). All this data, however, can be gleaned from various textbooks and therefore will not be elaborated further here.

One aspect concerning the Sun and our conception of it does need to be examined, namely the question of temperature. In our understanding of temperature, we generally consider it to be a measure of heat. For most of our customary purposes this is indeed the case. However, when speaking of the temper- ature of the Sun, for instance, which is sup- posed to be about 6,000°C at the surface and 20,000,000°C at the centre, we may no longer be concerned with thermal temperature, but rather with energetic activity, for according to Isaac Asimov:

Temperature here has to be distinguished from heat. The temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of the atoms or particles in the gas, but since the particles are few, the actual heat content per unit of volume is low.2

In the light of previous discussions concerning the contrasting characteristics of axial-> radial (inside-outward) and radial->axial (outside-inward) motion, it is therefore not kinetic activity per se that generates heat, but it is the type of motion that produces either heat or cold. In the context of the Sun, there- fore, temperature may be merely a measure of kinetic energy and may have little or no thermal content at all. Indeed viewed thermally, and since we cannot actually visit the Sun, the conditions applying to such activity may actually be icily cold. This proposal would represent a gigantic paradigm shift. It would be against all reason and apparent logic, just as was Copernicus' asser- tion in 1543 that the Earth actually orbited the Sun at a time when the opposite was held to be the case, although as early as the 3rd century BC, Aristarchos of Samos, a Greek astronomer, had already advanced the theory that the planetary system was heliocentric. Copernicus' daring declaration, however, proved to be true.

And this is perhaps the moment to drop Viktor Schauberger's bombshell! Viktor con- sidered the Sun to be a cold, dark body, expressing this view in the introductory remarks to "Questions for Science" in his book Our Senseless Toil published in 1934, in which he states:

Since the very beginning of time the Sun has stood above everything, staring down in icy silence at the frenzied activities of humankind, who regard it as a fiery orb. How could it be oth- erwise, such is their direct mental approach towards life! The closer we approach this source of light and heat, the colder and. darker its face will become. The nearer we are to it, the brighter the stars will be and as its light diminishes, heat, atmosphere, water and life will also disappear.3

Astonishing as this may be, let us not reject the proposal out of hand, for as was mentioned in chapter 1, Viktor made many of his discoveries by despatching his "free con-sciousness into those places the eyes cannot see". These assertions are not further elabo- rated in the documents in my possession, but in view of the number of other practicable discoveries he made in this way, they should not be merely discounted as foolish conjec- ture. We shall therefore examine the two claims of darkness and cold more closely. Let us begin with the aspect of darkness, for there is some evidence to support his view that, without any atmosphere, no stars would be visible.

In the last sentence of the above quotation there appears to be a slight conceptual incon- sistency, because the Sun is also a star.

However, since we cannot know the exact sequence of Viktor's train of thought or imagery before he committed it to paper, in order to make sense of it in line with known facts it may be more appropriate to reverse the order of the last two sentences in the above quotation. Let us examine the last sentence first:

The nearer we are to it, the brighter the stars will be and as its light diminishes, heat, atmosphere, water and life will also disappear.

In this statement the keyword is 'nearer', which does not define how much nearer we have to be, whether half way towards the Sun or merely at very high altitudes above Earth's surface. According to available infor- mation, once free of the denser atmosphere and the lack of clarity caused by the presence of atmospheric dust, water-vapour, etc., the stars do increase in brightness and more of them are visible than from the surface of the Earth.

Indeed in the documentaries showing the various space-shuttle flights it is quite evident that there is a great deal of light at the altitude at which the shuttle orbits, i.e. about 800km or 500 miles. The visual clarity at orbital altitude is phenomenal, the intensity' of light extreme; doubtless the Hubble space- telescope was sent into orbit to take advan- tage of this super-clarity. Instead of the normal graduations of shade that occur on Earth, however, in orbit the areas of light and shade are sharply defined with little graduation, being reduced to almost pure light and shadow. This is because the density of the particles of the surrounding gas is insuffi- cient to cause any significant lateral diffraction or scatter, which would vary the direction in which the light is propagated, thereby lightly illuminating the areas in shade.

From this it would appear that it is upon the density of the gas particles in the space surrounding the Earth that deceleration, dif- fraction and scattering of radiation and the overall luminosity depend. Relative to space, the Earth's atmosphere is extremely dense and would most certainly have a braking effect, causing the very high frequency of the

5: The Sun 79

incoming radiation to be reduced to the frequency levels of visible light. The greater the density, the greater the scattering, which in to aggegate at lower levels of the atmos- phere acts like a magnifying glass, producing an enlarged image, a phenomenon which explains why the Sun and the Moon appear larger when just above the horizon at dawn or dusk. In this sense therefore, the "nearer we are to" the Sun at a small scale, "the brighter the stars will be". At a larger scale, however, the picture may well change markedly, for as we proceed from the Earth's surface towards deep space, the particle density gradually decreases from about the Loschmidt constant4 of 2.68719 x 1019 (or 26,871,900,000,000,000,000) particles per cubic centimetre at standard temperature and atmospheric pressure until it equals the density of the interstellar hydrogen gas, estimated at 1 gas atom per cm3 which, relative to conditions on Earth, represents an extreme vacuum.

While high-frequency electromagnetic radiation can be made to manifest itself as visible light in a cathode ray tube under con- ditions of very low pressure or a moderate vacuum, if this is increased to an extreme vacuum, then the light disappears. As far as the generation of light is concerned, therefore, the decisive factor here would be the specific particle density required to produce it which, at a certain distance from the Earth may be too rarefied to do so. Assuming for the moment that there is such a boundary condition of density, the sky would then gradually darken as it is approached, in keeping with the assertion in the penultimate sentence in the above quotation, namely; "The closer we approach this source of light and heat, the colder and darker its face will become," and in regions lying beyond it the sky would be totally black. If this is actually the case, then whence did the light come that enabled the astronauts to be filmed during their visit to the Moon, which is supposed to have no atmosphere? In his book The Awesome Life-Force5 Joseph

H. Cater, a physicist and engineer who studied data from the American Apollo missions to the Moon very closely, discusses amongst other things the presence or otherwise of an atmosphere and strong gravitational field on the Moon. The scientifically proffered view of the absence of any significant lunar gravity he contests, stating that:

...A strong Moon gravity, of course, is not compatible with orthodox physics. Other powerful evidence of a dense Moon atmosphere came from statements made by astronauts during Apollo missions. The following case is a typical example. Prior to the publicized excursions to the Moon, early astronauts had stated that the stars were not visible above the atmosphere. This is to be expected. There is little or no diffusion of light in outer space and therefore the only stars that could be seen would be those whose discs could be resolved. This could only be done with powerful telescopes. An atmosphere functions in a manner analogous to a lens. The light from a distant star is diffused and spread out. Consequently, stars are visible because of a greatly enlarged and distorted image of the disc caused by the atmosphere.

On the Apollo 11 mission shortly before reaching the Moon, Armstrong stated that he could see the crater Tycho clearly and that he could see the sky all around the Moon, even on the rim of it where there is no earthshine or sunshine, Collins then stated, 'Now we're able to see stars again and recognise constellations for the first time on the trip....The sky's full of stars...it looks like its night side on Earth.' This means that after leaving the Earth the astronauts could not see any stars until they got close enough to the Moon to view them through the Moon's atmosphere!

If this transcript of the astronauts' commen- tary is authentic - and there is no reason to suppose that it is not -then light is a function of the atmosphere without which no stars can actually be seen. By extension, this invisibility could obviously also apply to the Sun, its actual degree of visibility as a much larger, far closer and more powerfully radiant object being dependent on the ultimate extent and attentuation of the Earth's atmosphere. In this sense, therefore, the face of the Sun could indeed be dark. All of this would appear to confirm Viktor's proposition.

Because no-one apparently has as yet been far enough away from this planet physically,

i.e. far beyond the Moon, the extent to which the atmosphere and visible light actually reaches into space is not known. It could rea- sonably be assumed, however, that there is a very gradual attenuation of both until the atmosphere equals the degree of rarefaction of the hydrogen gas that fills interstellar and intergalactic space. Alarmingly, we might find, were we able to go far enough away, that upon looking back at our own planet we could not even see it! It would be black; it would be dark! We would find ourselves engulfed by a particularly Stygian blackness in which there was nothing to be seen at all. There would be no up, no down, no right, no left, no sideways, just total disorientation and isolation.

Let us turn now to the question of cold, for as we approach the Sun, as we climb higher, it certainly does get colder. In actual fact the temperature varies with height as can be seen in fig. 6.1 in chapter 6, although in connection with Isaac Asimov's definition of tempera- ture above, it is a matter of conjecture whether the values indicated in the upper regions of the atmosphere in the above fig. are to be interpreted as thermal or kinetic.

If there is an outpouring of heat from the Sun as is presently believed, then why do these various regions of extreme cold exist within the atmospheric envelope? Perhaps they lie within the zones where the Earth's magnetic or bio-magnetic field lines are strongest (neutron concentration), the heat being generated in the Van Allen radiation belts (see fig. 4.14 - concentration of electrons and protons) or where the electrical component of the Earth's electromagnetic field predominates. Moreover, if interstellar space is a near absolute vacuum with a thermal temperature of -270.15°C (3° Kelvin), then how does the Sun's supposed heat ever reach us, since, being unable to pass through an extreme vacuum, a denser medium is there- fore necessary for the propagation of heat-rays or infra-red rays?

Curiously enough, while the Sun's outer envelope rotates about its axis in 25 days at the Equator, towards the poles it rotates con- siderably more slowly, taking 34 days to complete one revolution. Recalling the earlier discussion of radial-axial motion - the movement from outside inwards - and the centripetal interrelationship between cold, suc- tion and biomagnetism, this may perhaps be due to the concentrative effect of the greater density of the magnetic field lines entering the current (in time) north pole radially-axi-ally, i.e. vortically, and leaving from the cur- rent south pole axially-radially. It could therefore be mooted that as the particles of the more rarefied equatorial gases draw nearer to the solar north pole, they would tend to become increasingly contracted and concentrated spatially owing to the cooling and densifying effect of radial->axial motion and its attendant biomagnetism. As a result of exposure to this extremely intense biomag- netic field the particles would implode isotropically6. This would effectively remove some of their outer (that is, detectable) translatory velocity, thus producing the apparent deceleration in lateral movement, a decelera- tion that could not happen if we were here concerned with heat, since heat causes expansion. With immense heat, therefore, expansion would be immense. At the solar south pole on the other hand the process would take place in reverse order; the supercooled, biomagnetic particle constriction gradually being released as the magnetic lines diverge and the field intensity decreases, thus permitting the particles to 'breathe' and expand, giving rise to the faster rotation observed about the equator.

Should this proposition concerning the deceleration of lateral motion towards the poles be correct, then a corollary would be that, thermally speaking, the Sun is at least a relatively cold body, despite a high kinetic temperature. In terms of its radiant qualities it is known that the superconduction of electricity, that is, the resistanceless transport or propagation of energy, takes place a: extremely low thermal temperatures. In view of the fact that the Sun has been radiating, vast amounts of energy over billions of year- that it is able to do so may well be due to an effect similar to superconduction. By exten- sion the energies given off by the Sun, which deluge the Earth with about 100,000 trillion watts of energy, would therefore be the result of cold fusion, representing the aggregate

5: The Sun 81

mass defect ensuing from the cold fusing of myriads of pairs of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms. Should Viktor's hypothesis that the Sun is both dark and cold prove to be correct, it would without doubt have far-reaching implications for all human intellectual endeavour, science, religion, etc., and the resultant upheaval would be gargantuan in its ramications. As in the earlier case of Copernicus, suddenly all accepted doctrine, all that had previously been held to be true, would be overturned. The whole system of education, textbooks and religious documents would have to be rewritten. Two other sources known to me also allude to the limits of the Earth's and the Sun's light and heat. While not widely known, they are presented below because in Viktor's writings there is specific explanatory detail of this remarkable reappraisal of reality. It would be a serious omission if these far-seeing perceptions of Victor's were left wholly unsupported by other available data and merely considered to be the delusions of a madman, which he most certainly was not. The first quotation is from James Churchward's book The Lost Continent of Mu7, which is a largely anthropological study examining the folklore, legends and myths of the peoples of the Pacific basin and the Indian subcontinent who survived the cataclysm of the subsidence of Mu, a land which according to his research occupied most of what is now the Pacific Ocean. In it there is a translation of the Naacal Tablets, reputed to have been written by the Holy Brothers, the Naacals, who had been sent from the motherland of Mu to teach in the colony of Burma. On these tablets are recorded the seven intellectual commands of the seven superlative intellects of the Seven-headed Serpent, together with nine explanatory diagrams describing the manner in which the Earth was formed. The story told therein is analogous to the seven days of cre- ation recorded in Genesis. The third intellec- tual command states the following:

The third command was: 'Let the outside gases be separated and let them form the atmosphere and the waters.' And the gases were separated; one part went to form the waters, and the waters set- tled upon the Earth and covered its face so that no land anywhere appeared. The gases that did not form the waters formed the atmosphere, and:

·                The light was contained in the atmosphere.

·                And the shafts of the Sun met the shafts of the light in the atmosphere and gave birth to light. Then there was light upon the face of the Earth;

·                The heat was also contained in the atmosphere.

·                And the shafts of the Sun met the shafts of the heat in the atmosphere and gave it life. Then there was heat to warm the face of the Earth.

The second quotation is taken from The Life and Teaching of the Masters of the Far East by Baird T. Spalding8, written as a record of his three-year visit to Tibet in company with ten other Americans at the invitation of high lamas, and which began in 1885. Here it was explained to Spalding that:

If we take the science of things, we know there is a legend told here that all the heat and light and many other natural forces are contained right within the Earth itself. The Sun, of itself, has no heat or light. It has potentialities that draw the heat and light from the Earth. After the Sun has drawn the heat and light rays from the Earth, the heat rays are reflected back to the Earth by the atmosphere that floats in the ether. The light rays are drawn from the Earth in about the same manner and are reflected back to Earth by the ether.

As the air extends only a comparatively short distance, the effect of the heat rays varies as you leave the Earth's surface and ascend toward the outer limit of the atmosphere. As the air becomes less dense, there is less reflection; consequently as you ascend into the higher altitudes the heat becomes less and the cold increases. Every heat ray, as it is drawn out and reflected, drops back to the Earth, where it is regenerated. When you have reached the limit of air, you have reached the limit of heat.

It is the same with the light rays. They are drawn from the Earth and reflected back by the ether. As this ether extends much farther from the Earth than the air, the light rays extend much far- ther before they are all reflected. When you have reached the limit of ether, you have reached the limit of heat and light. When you have reached the limit of heat and light, you have reached the great cold. This cold is far more solid than steel, and it presses down upon the ether and the atmosphere with almost irresistible force and holds them together.

Now that we have disposed of the (them) above, let us take the other scientific legend and go below. According to this legend, the Earth a short distance from the surface is a molten mass. It is so hot that it melts any substance. This molten mass at the centre revolves more slowly than does the crust at the outer, and the belt where the two meet is the place where the natural forces are generated and there, again, the hand of God rules all.

If all these quotations represent the truth and should Viktor Schauberger be right, then it makes our Mother-Earth, this lonely capsule of light amidst the darkness, all the more precious to us. What we do to the atmos- phere enveloping our planet and to the life- sustaining environment of water, trees and warmth within which we live and to which we owe our very existence, then becomes of crucial, vital importance. It is that special medium that gives us light and allows us to marvel at all the beauty that surrounds us and to experience what earthly life is. For this reason the worsening pollution of the skies becomes of even greater concern, not only for its more immediate thermal and climatic effects, but also for its overall luminosity. If we do nothing, if we do not act effectively and quickly, then perhaps the light on this planet will slowly and irrevocably go out and all life will be painfully extinguished.

5.2 The Sun as a Fertilising Entity

iktor Schauberger considered the Sun to Vbe the entity responsible for impregnating the Earth - Mother Earth -thereby creat- ing the myriads of different life-forms that inhabit this planet. Its life-activating rays penetrate through the atmosphere and deep into the ground to awaken the sleeping, passive princess (the elements and substances of the Earth) and stimulate them into an evolutionary union. The dynamic motion of the Sun's radiant and fertilising energies, the bearers of in-form-ation and the stimulators of activity, must decelerate through external or internal resistances in order to modify their rate of vibration and intensity to such a point that they harmonise with the rate of vibration of the now slowly, but increasingly accelerated and more stimulated, receptive and passive female forces. They must attain a mutual level of interaction, a state of reciprocity in order to be able to combine with one another, an example of which was shown in chapter 4, figs 4.7 and 4.12. Without this modification or change in the state of both forces, no growth or evolution can take place. When they are in a state of resonance, however, reproduction or regeneration occurs, the Earth-ovum is fertilised and the processes of incubation, birth and growth begin (in-cube-ation means to evolve in three dimensions).

All life can thus be seen to evolve through the interaction of male and female entities, energies and essences. Each has its own special direction or orientation of action and operates perpendicularly to the other. As energies of contrasting gender they are also imbued with opposite, but yet complementary, properties and potentialities, which function on diverse planes varying from the gross material to the ethereally subtle, as was explained in the previous chapter.

This is a pulsating process which varies according to the time of year and the elongation or reduction of the respective developmental paths of the upwardly-radiant earthly subtle energies and the downwardly-radiat-ing solar ones as they alternate between the extreme and the mean, from differentiation to integration. In winter when there is the high est solar luminosity (greater percentage of blue and ultraviolet light) and the greatest passivity on the Earth, with low tempera- tures and the cold, bright, white, winter sun- light, the vegetation is dormant and much animal life hibernates. At this time reproduction, fertilisation and growth are reduced to a minimum.

But in spring and summer, when the angle of the Sun's rays increases, the thermal inten- sity of its radiation rises as the intrinsic power of the ultraviolet increases and the ultraviolet-infra-red balance shifts more towards the red end of the spectrum. This

5: The Sun 83

stimulates the passivity of the Earth and the high-frequency energy of the Sun is moderated through their mutual interaction. Acting along their mutually perpendicular paths, both come into a state of reciprocal resonance and an expulsion of the waste products of this energetic exchange occurs. This outfall is what Viktor Schauberger saw as the dis- charged precipitates of higher, bipolar subtle energies which result in what we commonly call 'growth'. A third entity is thus created, the offspring of the marriage between male and female potentialities. With the exception of oxygen and hydrogen, Viktor grouped all the known elements and their compounds under the general clas- sification of 'female', although some, such as silver, zinc and silicon, were endowed with paternally-oriented characteristics and pow-ers, whereas gold, copper and limestone were more maternally oriented (these will be dis- cussed in more detail in chapter 20). All these elements he called 'carbones' ('carbone' or 'carbones' is my English interpretation of the original German expression 'Kohlestoffe', normally spelt Kohlenstoffe, the additional 'e' in the English word redefining and enlarg- ing the scope of the usual term 'carbon'), reflecting the predominance of carbon and carbonous matter in the formation of the physical structures of life, the various living bodies and organisms created in the womb of Mother-Earth. In terms of her procreative psyche Goethe called her the 'Eternally Female' and the 'All-uplifting'. To endow the Earth with this attribute, Goethe must have had some inkling of the forces of levitation. Oxygen, on the other hand, Viktor deemed to be male and a lower form of solar energy, seeing both Sun and oxygen as the means by which these female, fecund, fructifiable potencies are fertilised, for without the Sun there would be no life at all, and without exygen there would be no organic growth and development. Hydrogen, however, is in a category of its own, for Viktor viewed it as the carrier substance of both oxygen and car- bone, often writing it down in the hiero- glyphic form in fig. 5.1. If we look at the world from space this concept is quite fac- tual, because we can see that our planet, com

posed as it is of carbones and fertilised by oxygen, is floating in the carrier ocean of the hydrogen gas filling all space.

As mentioned above, each of these two potentialities of opposite gender has its own charac- teristic orientation or axis along which it moves in a particular direction. So the Sun's paternal energies are propagated vertically with respect to the Earth's surface, whereas the Earth's maternal energies are propagated horizontally. This 'horizontality', as it were, depends on the scale at which it is observed. At a small scale this lateral extension appears flat and planar whereas, viewed over the Earth as a whole, it is actually curvilinear and spherical, and is coupled with a certain expansive movement. The Earth-ovum is therefore fertilised through the Sun's seasonally pulsat- ing, male impulses from a direction perpendicular to the Earth's surface and embodies the most ethereal and sacred act of coition (fig. 5.2b). In its modus operandi it is comparable to the fertilisation of the female ovum by the male sperm (fig. 5.2a) and, without in any way wishing to offend, the human sexual act is perhaps the best way to explain it.

Analogous to the penile penetration of the female (Earth) by the male (Sun), this pulsat- ing movement along its characteristic, straight (vertical) axis subsequently meta- morphoses into a movement perpendicular to it; into a spherical expansion of the Earth's matter-energy field, like the rotund expansion of the womb. In human beings (and many animals) the growth of the foetus produces a lateral stretch-expansion of the outer tissues, namely a horizontal movement that occurs when the outwardly-radiating, formative energies reach the physical limits of their radial extension. They are then propagated parallel to the outer surface. Equally applica- ble to the Earth, both movements of energy are caused by the expansion of the internal pressures resulting from the conversion of the combined energies of the two genders into physical mass (the baby).

5: The Sun 85

The same applies to solar fertilisation. During the winter months, those fertilising solar ethericities, which have not been metamorphosed into physical growth by fusing with their female counterparts present in the higher strata of the Earth, continue their inward penetration and encounter the embryonic female energies lying deep below the surface. Here their union gives rise to the procreative energies that produce the burgeoning blossoms of springtime. Since this process of impregnation is repeated continually, there is an almost continuous outward- and upward-moving, pulsating flux of maternal fructigenic and qualigenic matter radiating from the centre, which forms and concentrates at the ground surface (figs. 5.2b, c, d & e) providing the creative impulse for renewed growth. Reduced to their simplest form, the paths these two ethereal energies follow could be represented by the Cross (fig. 5.2f), symbolis- ing the ennobling creative power of the ECI in both material and immaterial dimensions. When the sign of the cross is made by a priest during Mass, for instance, the first gesture is a strong, blade-like downward movement of the hand reflecting the Sun's primary down- ward fertilising impulse. This is then fol- lowed by the softer, flatter sideways movement of the palm, which alludes to the horizontal motion of female, fructigenic energies. At a physical level, loving coition between man and woman should be a very sacred act, never to be debased, for as entities with opposite charge and potential, in their true, exalted union of mind, body and soul, man and woman fulfil the function ordained by the ECI for the furtherance of material life and higher spiritual evolution on this planet. In its highest sense and performance this union is the closest that two human beings can approach the essential nature of the self- less outpouring of the Divine on the physical plane of existence, for it is through the intermingling of their characteristic energetic essences that the eternal ur-procreative spark of new life is thrust forward into the future. The symbol of the cross predates Christianity. That earlier peoples understood the deeper occult significance of these two axially differ- ent movements may well be the reason why the Cross has long been held not only to be a symbol of spiritual perfection, but also of the sublime marriage between spirit (the father) and matter (the mother).

The feminine nature of physical substance is further affirmed by the fact that the two words matter and material, both have their root in the Latin word mater, meaning mother. Thus all physical elements of whatever kind (with the exception of oxygen and hydrogen) can be viewed as the progenitive essences of 'Mother-Earth' and therefore innately mater- nally-oriented. This explains more completely Viktor Schauberger's concept of the 'Mother-Substances' from which all physical structures, all new living entities, come into being through the marriage between these elementary substances and the inseminating spirit, predominantly oxygen.

This affords us an insight into what fire may actually be. Also associated with spirit, it is one of the four arcane, alchemical elements of earth, air, fire and water, and over the ages the quintessential nature of flame has long been the subject of much study and speculation by both chemist and alchemist alike. Frequently ascribed a purifying func- tion, the physical effect of fire is to reduce a given substance to its elementary constituents; to its maternal potentialities, in a process which, from this point of view, could be described as 'de-insemination', namely the withdrawal of paternal potencies. This could also be interpreted as the retraction or release of spirit from matter, wherein light is again manifested in the form of flame as the departing spiritualising essences are freed from material confinement and rise once more to reunite with their spiritual origins the Sun.

To return to the theme, however, it is these female fructigenic ethericities (subtle ener- gies) in their outward spiralling desire for fertilisation that give rise to the generation of levitational energies. On their vortical ascent these forces draw up matter in their wake. In this way they are responsible for the ex-pansion of the Earth-ovum, whose further outward movement is restrained by the opposing forces of the Sun as sunlight and the atmosphere. The former exerts a mild pressure of about 4kg/km2 and the latter of about 10.683 tonnes/m2 or 14.721bs/in2, a large component of which is the weight of water vapour. The extent of the Earth's present diameter or girth is therefore the result of the attainment of an unstable state of equi- librium between these counter-directional forces. This echoes the assertion from the second quotation above, in which the great cold of space was described:

This cold is far more solid than steel, and it presses down upon the ether and the atmosphere with almost irresistible force and holds them together.

If, indeed, the above immense pressure is actually resisted by a levitational counterforce as Viktor Schauberger maintains, that it can expand at all suggests that, in keeping with all other globular cell-structures, the Earth is hollower than we presently think, which may be the reason why it resonates like a bell when seismic charges are set off. Solid bodies do not resonate so readily. A similar, apparently unaccountable resonance was also detected on the Moon at the time of the lunar landings.

In his writings Viktor also refers to the Rig-Veda, the most ancient and most important of the four Vedas comprising the sacred Hindu scriptures, in which air battles are described that were fought from flying machines referred to as 'vimanas'. He sug-gests that not only were these machines powered with levitational energy, but that the forces of implosion and levitation were also known to the high priests of Atlantis. Moreover it was through their overstimula- tion by the priesthood that Atlantis was first torn upwards from the Earth, before being flung back, its levitational forces disintegrated, to create the basin that is now the Atlantic ocean, giving rise to the Great Flood recorded in the Old Testament and the myths of other peoples.

Notes

1.           I have given the Sun, the Earth and the Moon capital letters, for as living, spiritual entities, in my view they are as equally deserving of capitals as the rest of the planets, which are named after gods.

2.           Guide to Science: 1 The Physical Sciences by Isaac Asimov, Chap.2, p.88, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England.

3.           Published by Krystall Verlag, Vienna, 1934 -defunct in 1938.

4.           The Loschmidt Constant or Loschmidt Number (NL) determines the number of particles per unit volume of an ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a value of 2.68719 x 1025 par-

ticles per cubic metre. First calculated by Joseph Loschmidt (1821-1895).

1.           The Awesome Life-Force by Joseph H.Cater: Cadake Industries, P.O.Box 9478, Winter Haven, FL, USA, 1984, ISBN 0-86540-274-0.

2.           ISOTROPIC = Exhibiting equal physical properties or actions (e.g. refraction of light, elasticity, con- duction of heat or electricity) in all. (Compact Edn.Oxford English Diet.)

3.           The Lost Continent of Mu by James Churchward: Neville Spearman, London, 1959.

4.           Volume 2, p.50: De Vorss, Marina Del Rey, CA

U.S.A. ISBN 0-875516-085-9.

THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERIC ENVELOPE

6.1 The Atmosphere

Let us now come down to Earth as it were, and examine the planet on which we live. We have seen how life, movement and energy are synonymous; therefore for life to exist on our planet, as anywhere else for that matter, there must be a number of natural processes and functions which promote the concentration of the energetic matrix within which physical life can evolve. According to Viktor Schauberger these are created by the 'original' motion of the Earth as it rotates about its own axis and circulates its bio-mag- netic and bio-electrical energies through itself during its 365.26-day, orbital waltz around the Sun. Contrary to common belief the Earth is not actually a true sphere, but is slightly oblate. That is to say, there is a slight flattening at the poles. According to best measurements the polar diameter is 12,639.648km and the equatorial diameter, 12,682.176km, the latter being 42.688 km greater. Due to the effect of cen- trifugal forces acting on the greater land- masses of the northern hemisphere, it bulges slightly more above the Equator, making the world pear-shaped, the southern hemisphere being the more 'pointed' end. This has the effect of displacing the Earth's centre of gravity marginally north of true centre, producing the so-called 'Chandler Wobble', which is akin to the wobble of a spinning top. One revolution of this wobble takes 26,000 years to complete and in the process causes a variation in the inclination of the Earth's axis to the ecliptic, the plane in which all the planets orbiting the Sun lie, with the exception of Pluto.

Viktor viewed the Earth as a living organ- ism, a being possessed of intelligence. The word 'organism' actually originates from Aristotle's concept of 'Organon', meaning an 'instrument of reason'. This throws a whole new light on everything we consider organic, in that all physical forms are seen to be the creation of mind or an ordering principle. As an animate being, the Earth also breathes, pulsating its fundamentally female energies outward in tune with its gyration and in response to the energy received from the Sun.

This concept of a breathing planet is not new. The word 'atmosphere' and its associ- ated concepts are interesting and originate inter alia from the Ancient Greek and Sanskrit. From the Oxford English Dictionary1 we discover the following meanings, opin- ions and data, which are relevant to the discussion that follows. Words in bold type are to draw the reader's attention to their further significance.

Atmosphere GREEK: ATMOS = Vapour SPHERE = Ball.

SANSKRIT: ATMAN = Breath

OLD HIGH GERMAN: ATUM = Breath

1) The spheroidal gaseous envelope surrounding any of the heavenly bodies. The name was invented for the ring or orb of vapour or 'vaporous air' supposed to be exhaled from the body of a planet, and so to be part of it, which the air itself was not considered to be. It was extended

87

to the portion of surrounding air occupied by this, or supposed to be in any way 'within the sphere of activity' of the planet (Phillips 1696) and finally, with the progress of science, to the sup- posed limited aeriform environment of the Earth, or other planetary or stellar body. (It is curious that the first mention of an atmosphere is in connection with the Moon, now believed to have none.)

2) 1677 PLOT: That subtile Body that immedi- ately incompasses the Earth and is filled with all manner of exhalations, and from thence commonly known by the name of the atmosphere.

3) 1751 CHAMBERS: Among some of the more accurate writers, the atmosphere is restrained to that part of the air next the Earth, which receives vapors and exhalations and is terminated by the refraction of the Sun's light.

4) 1867 E.DENISON ("Astronomy without Mathematics"): The Earth's atmosphere decreases so rapidly in density, that half its mass is within 3.5 miles above the sea; and at 80 miles there can be practically no atmosphere.

5) 1881 STOKES: In the solar atmosphere there is a cooling from above.

6) 1727-51 CHAMBERS: Atmosphere of Solid or Consistent Bodies, is a kind of sphere formed by the effluvia, or minute corpuscles emitted from them.

7) 1871 EMERSON: A man should not go where he cannot carry his whole sphere or circle with him, not bodily, but atmospherically.

While several of these quotations underscore some of the comments made in the previous chapter about the Sun, in the main they affirm an apparently earlier held view that the Earth is a living organism, namely an entity that breathes. Viewed from outer space, the atmosphere itself could also be construed as the vital amniotic fluid that surrounds an Earth pregnant with life, in which it floats and which shields it from the potentially destructive forces of the Sun and Cosmos.

When the Earth was first formed, supposedly from a molten mass of condensing gases, it is believed to have been totally cov- ered by water before the dry land eventually came into being. Apart from volcanic emissions, in the main these 'vaporous exhalations' are the water vapour present in the atmosphere. Due to the heating effect of the interaction between solar radiation and atmosphere, the water covering the Earth's surface gradually evaporated and became dispersed through the atmosphere, ultimately charging the atmospheric envelope with water vapour, though mainly in the tro- posphere which extends to an altitude of about 6km at the poles and 18km at the equator. According to H.L. Penman's paper, "The Water Cycle"2, water has the greatest specific heat known among liquids (=1) and also has the greatest thermal conductivity of all liquids, whereas iron, which heats and cools more rapidly, has a far lower specific heat of 0.107.

Its great specific heat means that, for a given rate of energy input, the temperature of a given mass of water will rise more slowly than the tempera- ture of any other material. Conversely, as energ is released its temperature will drop more slowly.

Owing to its high specific heat and its capac- ity to retain heat, the water vapour gradually absorbed the heat of the Sun, and in doing so raised the general level of temperature. Because it absorbs heat strongly in the infra- red portion of the spectrum and is transpar- ent to (i.e.unaffected by) ultraviolet light, during the night when there is no heat input, heat losses are kept to a minimum. Had water not this capacity, if this water vapour buffer did not exist, then the Earth would have remained cold, lifeless and barren. Water, initially in its vaporous form, is there- fore responsible for the emergence of all life.

When water vapour reaches extreme alti- tudes, however, it then becomes so rarefied that it is dissociated into its constituent atoms of oxygen and hydrogen through the action of strong ultraviolet radiation. Being the heavier element, the oxygen then sinks back to Earth, while the lighter hydrogen atoms rise to rejoin their peers in space. Now sepa- rated from the hydrogen, the oxygen is exposed to high levels of ionising radiation through which the now single oxygen atoms are made to combine with the molecular oxygen (O2) into an allotropic form of oxygen, O2 or ozone, which is responsible for the absorp

6: The Earth's Atmospheric Envelope 89

tion of otherwise dangerous levels of ultra- violet radiation, a process which is vital for all life on Earth. The result is a net loss of water. The greater the amount of water vapour propelled into the atmosphere through the overheating resulting from excessive deforestation, the greater the consequent losses; losses indeed that can never be recovered (see pp. 121 & 123). What differentiates water from all other liquids, a factor that will be discussed in more detail later, is its so-called 'anomaly point' or 'point of anomalous expansion'; that is to say, water's volume does not decrease continually with increasing cold. Its behaviour is anomalous, and hence the term 'anomalous expansion' or 'anomaly point'. This point of reversal is reached when the water attains its greatest density and energy content at a temperature of +4°C, below which it eventually crystallises as ice at 0°C, a process greatly assisted if so-called 'impuri- ties' are present which provide the nucleus around which the ice forms. Another important factor is water's dielec- tric value. The base dielectric value for calcu- lating all other values is based on the permittivity of a vacuum and has a value of

1. Permittivity is the extent to which a sub- stance can be penetrated or traversed by an electric current or charge. Apart from a vacuum, a dielectric can be formed of an electrically neutral, interstitial membrane separating positive and negative electric charges, i.e. a non-conducting substance such as paraffin wax. The dielectric value of pure water (distilled water) is 81 (=92) and is therefore 81 times more effective as a charge separator than a vacuum and almost the highest dielectric value there is 1 mm3 of the purest water at room temperature, for example, has an electrical resistance equal to a lmm2 copper wire, 15,000,000km long. It thus possesses a tremendous innate resistance to the transfer of charge. Pure water will only freeze at tem- peratures of around -40°C or in clouds at about -10°C, which again is fairly important, as we shall discover later. In comparison with a temperature of -273.15°C (= absolute zero or 0oKelvin), supposedly the lowest possible temperature to be found anywhere in the Universe, the temperature of 0°C, or freezing point, is relatively warm.

Lying between approximately +40°C and -10°C, the temperature range in which we live is not very large. In fact it is a fairly nar- row band-width between extremes to which we are not normally subjected. Our radius of action, our living space, as it were, lies within the upper and lower boundaries of the troposphere, itself a stratum or 'sphere' within the overall atmospheric envelope and defined by temperature and water vapour content.

To glean more facts about the structure of the atmosphere, from the Phaidon Concise Encylopedia of Science and Technology3 we are provided with the classifications shown in fig. 6.1, which should be viewed in conjunction with fig. 6.2. My own questions and comments are printed in bold type.

6.2 The Terrestrial Bio-Condenser

eeping in mind water's dielectric value of 81 and its enormous resistance to the transfer of charges, let us now examine the thermal structure of the atmosphere (fig. 6.2), for this may explain to us another way in which, apart from the accumulation of heat, the Earth could become charged with life energy.

The portion of the atmosphere most impor- tant to us and which affects us most is the troposphere, which from fig. 6.2 can be seen to terminate at the tropopause between 6km and 18km up. Curiously enough, we also find that the temperature neither decreases nor increases constantly (shown as wavy broken line), but fluctuates as we ascend through the various atmospheric layers, so that at a certain altitude, at 29km for instance, the temperature is -60°C, whereas at a height of 80km it is +10°C. Somewhere between these two temperatures, therefore, there is a layer where the temperature is +4°C. According to my calculations there are at least four such levels where the temperature equals +4°C, at altitudes of about 3.5km, 77km, 85km and 175km.

EXOSPHERE: The outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere extending from about 400km500km above the Earth's surface, where terrestrial gravitation is too weak an effect to prevent the escape of uncharged particles.

THERMOSPHERE: An atmospheric layer lying between the mesosphere and the exosphere, reaching an altitude of about 400km, where the temperature is over 1000°C. [Is this thermal or kinetic? - CC]

IONOPAUSE: The transitional zone in the atmosphere between the ionosphere and the exosphere about 644km (400 miles) from the Earth's surface.

IONOSPHERE: A region of the Earth's atmosphere extending from about 60km to 1000km above the Earth's surface in which there is a high concentration of free electrons formed as a result of ionising radiation entering the atmosphere from space.

F-REGION: 150km-1000km. Highest proportion of free electrons and most useful for long-range radio transmissions, also called the Appleton Layer. [+4°C stratum at about 175 km-CC]

E-REGION: 90km-150km. Reflects radio waves of medium wavelength, also called the Heaviside Layer. [+4°C stratum at about 85km - CC]

D-REGION: 60km-90km. Lowest region of the ionosphere - Low concentration of free electrons and reflects low-frequency radio waves. [+4°C stratum at about 72km - CC]

MESOPAUSE: The zone of minimum temperature between the mesosphere and the thermosphere.

MESOSPHERE: The atmospheric layer lying between the stratosphere and the thermosphere characterised by a rapid increase in temperature with height. The atmospheric zone immediately above the stratosphere marked by a temperature maximum of +10°C between altitudes of 48km and 53km.

STRATOPAUSE: The transitional zone of maximum temperature between the stratosphere and the mesosphere.

STRATOSPHERE: The atmospheric layer lying between the troposphere and the mesosphere in which the temperature generally increases with height. The atmospheric zone immediately above the tropopause, including the Ozone layer.

TROPOPAUSE: The plane of discontinuity between the troposphere and the stratosphere characterised by a sharp change in the lapse rate4 and varying in altitude from about 18km (11 miles) above the equator to 6km (4 miles) above the Poles.

TROPOSPHERE: The lowest atmospheric layer about 18km thick at the equator and 6km thick at the Poles in which air temperature decreases with height at about 6.5°C/km. Most meteorological phenomena occur in this layer. The innermost zone of the Earth's atmosphere extending from the surface to the tropopause.

Fig. 6.1 The Structure of the Atmosphere

6: The Earth's Atmospheric Envelope 91 6: The Earth's Atmospheric Envelope 93

Since there is water vapour in the atmosphere near these various altitudes in the form of cumulus and cirrus clouds (troposphere), nacreous clouds (stratosphere) and noctilu- cent clouds (mesosphere) as shown on fig. 6.3, we have a situation where a thin stra- tum of pure water may exist at each of these levels, which has a high resistance to the transfer of an electric charge. In view of the presence of these various +4°C strata and water's high dielectric value of 81, it could be postulated that their combined effect would act to create a natural bio-condenser, a con- denser being a device with which an electric charge can be accumulated and stored. Before elaborating further on this hypothesis, however, it is necessary here briefly to explain the principles of an electrical condenser. In its most elementary form, a condenser consists of two electrically charged plates, one with a positive charge equal to the other's negative charge. If the positive charged is raised on one side of the dielectric then the negative charge automatically rises to the same level on the other. In fig. 6.4 these two charged plates are separated by the intervening dielectric (the largest ele- ment), which in this case we shall deem to be pure water. The charges themselves are distributed uniformly over the surfaces of the two plates. In order to increase the charge density on one side of the dielectric, the surface area of the respective plate is reduced. If this plate is reduced to a quarter the size of the other, then its charge density is four times that of the larger plate (fig. 6.5). The force with which the two opposite charges try to equalise or attract each other is known as the potential. The smaller the separation between the charges, the smaller the distance between them, the greater the potential, which increases by the inverse square of the separa- tion. Therefore, if the separation is 10mm, for example, then the potential is 12. If the sepa- ration is reduced to 1/2 i.e. 5mm, then the potential is 22 (=4) and so on, as shown in fig. 6.6. The smaller the separation, therefore, the greater the corresponding potential, which could be unleashed once the permittivity of the dielectric has been overcome.

If the charge surface on one side and the separation are decreased simultaneously, then both charge density and potential increase exponentially relative to the initial magnitude of the charges and sizes of the charge-plates (fig. 6.7). If we now recompose these plates in the form of concentric cylinders as shown in fig. 6.8, then as the surface area of the inner cylindrical plate is necessar- ily smaller, the charge and potential increase automatically from the outside inwards. The greater the number of nested plates, there- fore, the more intense the potentiation.

Referring once more to fig. 6.3, we can see that from the outside inwards, like an onion, each succeeding layer has a smaller surface area owing to their concentricity. In other words, these layers form a condenser with concentric spherical plates (fig. 6.9). It could therefore be construed that, on encountering each successive, concentric, spherical +4°C dielectric stratum, the potential of the energy coming from the Sun is gradually magnified. As the Sun's energy passes from the outside towards the inside, it becomes increasingly concentrated as it approaches the Earth's sur- face, due to these enveloping layers of +4°C water, which as noted earlier does not freeze at temperatures of -40°C.

Viewed from a more cosmic perspective these strata are extremely close together, pro- ducing a very high potential. Relative to the average diameter of the Earth -12,660.912km

- the height of the highest of these +4°C strata represents only 0.0138%. In other words, if the Earth were depicted as a sphere with a diameter of 1 metre, then these four or

6: The Earth's Atmospheric Envelope 95

so strate would lie within 13.8mm of the sur- face. From this arises the concept of the Earth as an accumulator of energy within whose volume a charge is progressively built up. This accumulation of energy naturally enhances the emergence of life because, with- out energy without differences in charge, gender, potential or a suitable energy field any form of life is impossible. As charge-resisting layers, these mooted diaelectric strata could also in part contribute to the reflection of long, medium and shortwave radio transmissions from different altitudes as shown on fig. 6.3, normally attrib- uted to different ionisation levels for in each of the so-called D-, E- and F-regions water vapour is present at different densities. Being in a lower dynamic and more harmonically stabilised energetic state, the greater density of water vapour at increasingly lower alti- tudes may well correspond through resonance to the lower wavelengths of the incident radiation, whose frequency has been reduced by contact with the braking effect of the atmosphere, thus creating the medium with which radio-waves are reflected back to Earth.

6.3 The Development of Electricity

nce the preconditions for life were estab- Olished, then the development of another form of energy - electricity -became neces- sary, although it was probably almost simultaneous. Through its agency the ozone layer could be additionally reinforced. How this is done is demonstrated by a very simple experiment, in which energy in the form of an electric charge is generated by falling water (fig. 6.105).

First carried out by Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) in the latter part of the 19th century, it consists of two needle-jets of water falling through two insulated brass collector-cylinders into two similarly insulated collector-cylinders below, each of which contains a metal funnel. Each of the upper collector-cylinders A and A1 is connected diagonally via an insulated rod to collector-cylinders C1 and C respectively, positioned under the opposite water-jet. Each drop of water falling from nozzle B through cylinder A towards lower cylinder C is negatively charged, due to the inductive influence of cylinder A. Upon coming in contact with the funnel, this negative charge is transferred to cylinder C and the water drains away through the bottom of the funnel free of charge. Since cylinder C is connected to upper cylinder A1, A1 also becomes negatively charged. Now negatively charged, cylinder A1 induces a pos- itive charge in the water falling from nozzle B1 into cylinder C, thus reinforcing the positive charge in cylinder A via the insulated diagonal connection, the combined effect of which is a constant increase in both positive and nega- tive charges which may well be without limit. In 1937 this experiment was also carried out by Walter Schauberger in Nuremberg at Viktor Schauberger's behest in order to study the energies in water, but with some modifications to the experimental arrangement vis-a- vis Lord Kelvin's. Instead of funnels, the water fell into collector-vessels heavily insulated with paraffin wax to prevent any charge leak- age to earth. These vessels are labelled V- and V+ on the apparatus I built shown in fig. 6.11, and each contains a brass strip diagonally connected with an insulated copper rod to the respective insulated, hollow collector-cylin- ders denoted by C- and C+. Instead of the finest hypodermic needles at A and B, which I used to create the jet, Viktor Schauberger used needle-jets in which the configuration and vol- ume of flow could be adjusted by the extent to which the central needle was inserted through the jet. With very fine adjustment, the water could be made to stream out in spirals around the needle tip, endowing it with a greater energetic potential.

In order to detect the presence of an electri- cally charged field, an electroscope is required, the first of its kind being invented by Professor Wilhelm Exner at the University of Vienna, which he lent to Viktor Schauberger for his Nuremberg experiments. Exner's electroscope consisted of a cylindrical metal casing sealed with glass at each end into which a thin flat metal plate, insulated from the surrounding metal casing, was inserted through the top. Attached to each side of this and hanging vertically were two thin foils made of gold leaf. When a wire con- nected to one of the collector-cylinders was held near the protruding tip of the metal plate or touched it, the two strips of gold leaf flapped. Endowed with like charges, they repelled one another. Upon touching the metal casing at their furthest extent, the charges were earthed and gold-leaf foils once more hung vertically.

The structure of water is formed of dipole molecules (molecules with negative and posi- tive poles) and when falling each of the water droplets generates a charge. To give a more detailed idea of a dipole let me quote from H.Lindner's book, Das Bild der Modernen Physik6 (fig. 6.12).

For the generation of electromagnetic waves a 'transmitter' is necessary, which in many instances is a very expensive apparatus techni- cally speaking. That such apparatuses, despite their diverse construction, can propagate electro- magnetic waves, in the final analysis is founded

6: The Earth's Atmospheric Envelope 97

on one feature only: Electrical charges are forced to perform.accelerated movements. Electrons are usually employed for such purposes. They pendulate to and fro in oscillating circuits created by coils and condensers. The particular part of the apparatus in which the waves are generated, contained an opn oscillating circuit, which is so contracted that the fields evolving within it are radiated into space via the attached antenna. Let uss take a simple example and one of a type Heinrich Hertz also used in his experiments. This consists metal rod with a sphere at each end. The electrons, which were originally distributed through it uniformly, will subsequently be stimulated into rapid oscillation, into an alternating current of the highest frequency by the remote emitter. What happens in the vicinity of this dipole emitter is shown in the diagram below and is briefly described in the following:

1.            Each end of the dipole is either positively or negatively charged. In the same way as occurs betweenn the plates of a condenser, an electric field is propagated between them. This extends much further into space than can be shown in the diagram.

2.            The charges equalise, the electrons flow through the connecting rod towards the positive pole. This swelling current generates a magnetic field, during which the electric field disappears in the vicinity of the dipole. In relation to Maxwell's equation, it can just as well be said that the changing electric field creates the magnetic field.

1.       After completion of the charge equalisation, the electric field has vanished. The widely extended magnetic field has reached its maximum strength.

2.       The spheres at the poles become oppositely charged, plus becomes minus and vice versa. The magnetic field begins to disappear, a new electric field evolves with reversed polarity, ultimately regaining its original strength.

Incidentally, this also explains more graphically why the Sun's poles swap over every

11.2 years as mentioned in chapter 5. The Earth's poles are also known to have shifted periodically, the mechanics of which are the same and the way the electric fields shown in fig. 6.12c come into being is virtually identical to the formation of the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth in fig. 4.14.

But to return to the theme in hand, for the same reason that the gold leaf foils of the electroscope diverge, the fine jet of water par- ticles soon splits apart as the charge intensifies and the negative or positive field builds. Finally the electric field, generated in and fill- ing the space below the jets, becomes so great that the particles are forced to rise (fig. 6.11). When the water pressure is very slight and after the charge has built up, no falling water can be heard, nor is any seen below the

6: The Earth's Atmospheric Envelope 99

upper collector-cylinder. However, when holding one's hand about 50cm away from the jet, after a while icy-cold pin-pricks can be felt as the droplets encounter the skin and discharge into it. An insulated high-tension lend can be connected to each collector-cylinder and when the ends of the two leads are brought closely together, a spark sud- denly jumps between them, which can be in the order of 60,000 volts. The rule of thumb for determining the magnitude of the charge is 2,000 volts per millimetre jumped. With the device that I built, a charge was generated sufficient to arc across a gap of 2 cm, producing a sharp snap as a result of the passage of about 40,000 volts. This relatively large charge was generated by an extraordinarily small quantity of falling water.

This explains, for instance, why rainwater is much more productive, regenerative and growth-enhancing than irrigation water. While rainfall does not always culminate in a discharge of lightning, which depends (as discussed later) on the prevailing conditions and density of water vapour, as this little dipole falls, it rotates, building up both an electric and a magnetic, or bio-magnetic field, the formative energetic field. When this now highly-charged raindrop encoun- ters a living organism, in this case a leaf, its accumulated energy is discharged into the plant and is made directly available for the plant's use. This is the reason for the more vigorous reaction of plants to rainwater vis-a-vis irrigation water, because the latter does not have the same fall-distance, and therefore cannot accumulate any significant charge. If this experiment is carried out in the dark, then with a powerful torch, the water droplets can be seen to rise upwards above the upper collector-cylinders. If horizontally disposed spirals of copper rod are installed in lieu of the upper collector- cylinders, this apparently gives rise to another phenomenon namely the appearance of vertical plumes of bluish and white, cold light above the water-jet the result of intense ionisation and the horizontal propa- gation of a reddish glow below the copper

spirals. The blue light is associated with bio-magnetism - the upbuilding, levitational life-energy - and the reddish light is the product of electricism and has a degenera- tive effect.7

Apart from his interest in the actual generation of charges, Viktor Schauberger also made use of this apparatus to test the quality and vitality of water. One litre of good, mountain springwater had to pass through the needle-jets about 150 times before the gold-leaf foils ceased flapping. Experimenting with varying water temperatures he also found that at +37°C the oxygen in the water became aggressive and the water almost undrinkable. Its charge also decreased with increase in temperature. Whether the colour of the ionised glow described above, similar to the Aurora Borealis, varied with temperature, has not been reported. One could however assume with some confidence that different temperatures would produce different emanations.

6.4 Storms, Water Vapour and Climate

his experiment has many implications. It Tshows, for instance, that as a result of the gradual accumulation of water vapour, the atmosphere became sufficiently saturated to permit the aggregation of individual water molecules into macro-molecules, or rain- drops. In the process of falling, these droplets of water generate a charge, and suddenly the phenomenon of electricity appears in the form of lightning. All at once a form of pure energy is made available for the planet's use.

In the course of an electrical discharge, ozone is created and, due to the often intense temperature-and ionisation-induced, high-velocity updrafts in thunder- storms, this ozone can be borne aloft to form or reinforce the ozone layer, which protects us all from excessive ultraviolet radiation. At any given moment the number of thunderstorms world-wide has been placed at about 1880 with an estimated 100 lightning strikes per minute. At an average of 15,000,000kw per strike, this amounts to l,500,000,000kw/min or 13,000,000,000kw/hrs per year8.

Lightning strikes can be up to 9km long and sheet lightning can extend up to 100km. All of these strikes are associated with the production of ozone due to the intense ionisation caused by the electrical discharge. In view of the fact that thunderstorm clouds can reach altitudes as high as 12km or so and contain extraordinarily pow- erful upcurrents, as demonstrated on a small scale in the experiment described above, it is possible that this newly produced ozone is carried up to augment the protective ozone layer.

If thunderstorm activity should decline, however, then this contribution will also drop commensurately. Indeed, over recent years the author has noticed a fall in the usual number of thunderstorms in the area where he lives and it may well be that this is a trend world-wide. Should this be the case, then it may have serious consequences for us all. Remembering that the water molecule is a dipole, for rain to produce an electrical dis- charge the water particles must be very fine in order to be able to spin fast enough to generate a high charge.

According to research by Kenneth S.Davis and John Arthur Day9 the amount of water evaporated annually from the oceans amounts to about 333,000km3, the contribu- tion from lakes, river and land surfaces being in the order of 62,000km3; the latter represent- ing 18.6% of the total of 395,000km3 that returns to Earth as rain every year. Relative to the total area of rivers and lakes, the land surfaces covered by forest are far greater and therefore the major part of land evaporation is derived from the forest. As a percentage of the whole the contribution from the forest is therefore critical to the maintenance of stable climatic conditions.

However, owing to our massive deforestation activities, principally for agriculture and beef production, the area of natural forest has decreased enormously from its original state. This massive enlargement of hot, sun- exposed surfaces has resulted in an enor- mous increase in the evaporation rate, which has been greatly assisted by an increase in temperature caused by the effects and prod- ucts of our technology. A 1°C rise in tempera- ture causes the retention, but not necessarily an even distribution, of an additional 1,000 million cubic metres of water vapour in the atmosphere.

In consequence the whole of the Earth's water balance has been seriously disturbed, resulting in very disorderly agglomerations of atmospheric water; a fact we are daily made aware of. In some places there is an overload, causing repeated catastrophic rainfall and large-scale inundation, such has been occurring in recent years in Bangladesh, while in others there is little or none at all, i.e. severe drought conditions prevail, as in the Sudan and Ethiopia, all of which are associated with extreme suffering and enormous loss of life. Due to the sheer volume of excess water vapour, instead of the creation of the small water particles mentioned above, much heavier drops are formed which fall as delug- ing rain and generate considerably lower charges.

In many such rainstorms, cyclonic and monsoonal storms there is no thunder at all. While this additional water vapour will increase the general atmospheric temperatures, due to the movement of the upper air streams it graduates towards the poles, there to fall as snow, adding to the volume of water fixed almost permanently as ice. Moreover the area of cloud cover also increases owing to this abnormal water- vapour content, which in turn amplifies the so-called albedo effect of the Earth. The albedo is the term for the overall whiteness of the Earth's atmosphere caused by the reflection of light off the white cloud areas. This obscures the Sun's rays and prevents the water vapour below the clouds from being further warmed.

On the other hand, as most of the water vapour has been accumulated in the clouds, where there are none relatively little vapour is present and so the Sun, where it can shine through, no longer warms the atmos- phere. Assisted by the increasing pressures in the lower atmosphere caused by thetemperature-induced expansion of abnormal

6: The Earth's Atmospheric Envelope 101

quantities of water into vapour, more and more water-molecules are forced to higher altitudes, there to be subjected to the dissociative processes mentioned earlier and the irredeemable loss of water increases. In the long-term all of these effects act to reduce the general ambient temperatures and the presence of atmospheric water and while ini- tially the temperature in parts of the Earth will rise, in the end it will inevitably cool off dramatically as the precursor to a new ice-age.

Historically no-one has ever experienced the initial stages of an ice-age. But perhaps the recent, totally unseasonal fall of snow in Australia at Christmas 1993 (hottest time of the year) is the first outstretching of the icy tentacles of an incipient ice-age. Viktor Schauberger already foresaw all this in 1933, long before anyone had any idea of global warming, and described it in detail in his book Our Senseless Toil - The Source of the World Crisis. The major causes in his view being the overclearing of the forest, coupled with heavy-handed, mechanistically-oriented agricultural practices and unnatural, misguided systems of water resources manage- ment, all of which are due to a total incomprehension of natural energies and processes.

Notes

1.The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary: Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1980.

1.         "The Water Cycle", The Biosphere, Scientific American, 1970: W.H. Freeman, New York, U.S.A.

2.            Phaidon Concise Encylopedia of Science and Technology, © 1978 Andromeda Oxford Limited, 11-15 The Vineyard, Abingdon, OX14 3PX, England.

3.        ibid.. LAPSE RATE: The rate of change of any

meteorological factor with altitude, especially temperature, which usually decreases at a rate of 0.6°C per

100 m (environmental lapse rate). Unsaturated

air loses about 1°C per 100m (dry adiabatic(*) lapse rate), whereas saturated air loses at an average of 0.5oC per 100m (saturated adiabatic lapse rate). ibid.. (*) ADIABATIC: Of a thermodynamic process occurring without loss or gain of heat.

1.            Electricity & Magnetism, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1908.

2.            Das Bild der Modernen Physik by H.Lindner, p.108, fig. 51/1, "The formation of electromagnetic waves": Urania-Verlag, Leipzig, Germany.

3.            Why blue above the red below one might ask? For an explanation of the principles rather than the specifics we must refer to the table in figure 4.6, where we are reminded that gravitation, centrifu- gence, electricism, expansion, pressure and heat are all octavely related. It could thus be inter- preted that as the dipole droplets fall due to GRAVITY they develop like ELECTRIC charges, giving rise to mutually repulsive PRESSURES. These in turn cause the CENTRIFUGAL axial-> radial and horizontal EXPANSION of the ELEC-

TRIC field, which has a relatively low potential due to increased charge separation. In consequence it produces a discharge, whose colour lies at the lower frequency, longer wavelength, HOT end of the spectrum, i.e. red. We also know from fig. 4.6 (p. 63) that levitation, centripetence, mag- netism, impansion, suction and cold are equally octavely related. As the continuing flow of spinning dipole molecules with like charges encounter the now fully developed electric field, they are repelled aloft in what might be described as an 'upward fall'. Along this longer U-shaped fall- path each gradually develops its MAGNETIC charge. As the BIOMAGNETIC field develops gravity rapidly gives way to LEVITY. Mutual attraction (SUCTION) increases, producing a CENTRIPETAL RADIAL->AXIAL IMPANSION that converges the coiling MAGNETIC lines of force into an accelerating LEVITATIONAL vortex. Reaching extreme intensity at the pinnacle of this vortex, a plume-like, high frequency, bio-magnetic, bluish-white, COLD light soars upward as the bio-magnetic field discharges. In a sort of backhanded confirmation of this phenomenon, the human psy- che appears already to have been unconsciously impressed with the respective colours of magnet- ism and electricism, because coloured diagrams in most text books show magnetic fields in blue and electric fields in red!

1.           Leopold Brandstatter, Implosion statt Explosion, Self-publication, Linz 10, Fach 20, Austria.

2.           Water - The Mirror of Science, by K.S.Davis &

J.A. Day, p. 149: Heinemann Educ, London, 1964.

7

TEMPERATURE

7.1 Other Forms of Temperature

e shall now turn our attention to more familiar concepts of tempera- ture. The movement of temperature in its eternal cycles is also the activator of life and death, of increase and decrease, decompo- sition and renewal. It is temperature, or rather the innate energies functioning under the ban- ner of temperature, that produce the pulsations which punctuate and control all life's processes. We think of evolution as a continuous process, which it is on the whole, although it also has an important discontinuous aspect. If it were not for these energy pulsations which at one moment act to dissociate and at another to recombine both energy and matter, there would be no ordering instruments by which the countless individualities and qualities could be created that make up life as we know it. Thus the cyclical movement of temperature can be viewed as individuality-evoking motion which creates episodal conditions conducive to the evolution of new life forms or the renewal of existing ones.

The defining factors of temperature are the two antitheses of heat and cold, their extreme limits being the transcendental aspects of infi- nite heat and infinite cold. As we have seen, the achievement of either limit is impossible in the physical world, since the attainment of one would totally negate the existence of the other, while at the same time negating itself. It would then have no counterpart, no polarity, no dual- ity, and the wholeness comprising the interac- tion of heat and cold at a physical level would cease to exist. Through the neglect of dialectic thinking in science, through which both sides of the coin, as it were, are taken into account, it would then have become a 'Law' in the same way that science speaks of the 'Law of Gravity' while discounting the counter-aspect of Levity (see fig. 4.6, chapter 3).

While there may indeed be very high temperatures elsewhere in the Universe, here on Earth the temperatures conducive to growth and development are relatively low and lie within a fairly narrow band-width. In the main, natural growth takes place in moderate temperature conditions, large or abrupt variations being harmful to most organisms. Owing to our blinkered education and the technology arising from it, we are accustomed to think of, and accept as natural, temperatures of an extremely high order. We generate our power using combustion and hot fission. Our form of chemistry is coercion-chemistry, in which we cre- ate compounds and power our machines using heat, often under extremely high pressures. Nature, on the other hand, has little constructive use for high pressures and temperatures, except as a means of relieving stresses, e.g. vol- canoes and earthquakes, and instead employs cold fusion in her cooperation-chemistry. This is the cool chemistry of mutual suction or attrac- tion between opposite polarities and charges, in which under a partial vacuum - the spacial and energetic vacuity between attracting bodies -various elements come together to create life.

Were it not for such a vacuum, we would not be able to breathe. In 1908 the German sur- geon, Prof. Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch, discov- ered this region of low pressure between the pleura and the surface of the lungs and

102

7: Temperature 103

explained it to his superior, Professor Mikolitsch, as follows:

In the enclosed and healthy lung a low-pressure zone exists, which maintains the pulmonary cavity and enables the lungs to expand with inhalation and contract with exhalation. Were there no vacuum between the surface of the lungs and the pleura, no intake of breath, no resistanceless expansion of the lungs would be possible. Without this partial vacuum, which causes the lining of the lungs to cling to the interior of the rib-cage, the lungs would collapse and death could follow. Should this biological vacuity be filled with normal, atmospheric pressure through any form of perforation, then everything would suffocate.1

When Sauerbruch had finished speaking, Mikolitsch old him he was out of his mind and dismissed him without notice. So much for Mikolitsch's open, objective, scientific opinion, a response many other discoverers have suffered at the hands of orthodoxy! The currently accepted and one-sided view of this heat-cold duality, however, is that heat rises and expands, and cold falls and contracts, This is certainly valid for all technical systems and where this applies we shall call them tech- nical heat and technical cold, for want of a better definition. However, this view is only part of the truth for Nature also uses the opposite form, namely rising and expanding cold and falling and concentrating heat. Relative to the vast expanse of the Earth, we humans are little more than viruses, if that. Our general perspective therefore borders on the analytical, since from our low vantage point we cannot observe the whole, but only the smaller parts in our immediate vicinity. By raising our station, as it were, we can see that this other, opposite temperature relationship also exists, Viewed from space, a high-energy state of risen and expanded cold, we can see that a condition of falling and concentrating heat gradually evolves as we approach the Earth's surface, where it supposedly reaches its maximum in the Earth's interior, depending on whether the Earth is viewed as a solid or a hollow body. So far neither of the latter propositions has been proven incontrovertibly.

The difference between these two forms of temperature most commonly experienced, relates to the temperature inversions that occur between night and day, between winter and summer, or a combination of both diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations. During the daytime increasing warmth is experienced as we descend to the bottom of a valley (falling and concentrating heat), whereas it gradually becomes cooler (rising and expanding cold) as we ascend. At night the process reverses (it is more apparent in winter). As we descend the air becomes chillier and denser (falling and concentrating cold), whereas when we ascend the air warms (rising and expanding heat).

It is therefore evident that two different forms of natural temperature/density relation exist, one of which has as yet neither been recognised nor investigated by science, although according to Viktor Schauberger it is the predominant form and the one that makes life possible. Our present technology is there- fore completely unbalanced as a result.

These two different forms of temperature, or temperament as Viktor says in reflection of their ethereal origins, have opposite functions and are both active in Nature simultaneously. For evolution and development to proceed unimpeded, however, the higher, uplifting form must predominate. This we will call Type A, representing the collective attributes of ris- ing and expanding cold and falling and con- centrating heat, which acting together have an integrating, life-affirming function, leading to cold, formative, metabolic processes. It arises through the 'original' motion of the Earth and can be induced mechanically through the artificial, but naturalesque creation of the cycloid-spiral-space-curve motion (radial-axial) discussed in previous chapters. By this means bio-magnetism can also be generated, a form of energy of which science is presently ignorant.

Conversely, Type B temperatures where heat rises and expands and cold falls and con- centrates, have a disintegrative, life-negating function and give rise to warm, decomposive, metabolic activity. Being associated with the analysing energies of electricism, when gener- ated naturally, Nature makes use of Type B for the proper organic decomposition of previously living matter, i.e. for decay without putrefaction.

Through his understanding of the interaction

Fig. 7.1 Sonorous figure. Plate 24.5 x 32.5 cm, thickness 0.5mm, frequency 1580 cps before the effect of heat (detail).

7: Temperature 105

between these two types of temperature, in the later wars of the 1930s and early 1940s Viktor Schauberger developed the 'Klimator', a space- heater/cooler that functioned according to nat-ural law and was the size of a hat. With the use of this machine, instead of the usual conditions of cold feet and hot head experienced in winter and symptomatic of technically controlled environments, warmer air was generated at lower levels and cooler air higher up. It was also able to create the reverse conditions in summer. In the later chapter 21 on implosion this will be addressed more fully. Type B temperature can be generated by excessive heat -man-made creation of deserts and overclearing of forests. When exploited mecha- nically in machines or devices not constructed according to Nature's system of dynamics, it gradually disturbs the delicate balance of health in all organic bodies, making them susceptible to cancer and other diseases. This is mainly due to disturbances in the metabolism and therefore in the healthy formation of the life-fluids of water, blood or sap. Unfortunately for us and the rest of the environment, today it is Type B that is exclusively in widespread use.

7.2 Temperature - Health & Disease

ith present methods of energy generation

W and creation of motion, large amounts of unnatural, technical heat, noise, noxious fumes and vapour are dissipated into the atmosphere, while soil and water are subjected to massive loses of poisonous materials. All of this is orchestrated according to a mechanistic, cen- trifugal and therefore divisive ideology which, driven by purely materialistic motives, arro- gantly upsets the delicate thermal balance and preconditions required for the health and vital- ity of every living thing. These misguided prac- tices all have a tendency to raise the general level of temperature above the naturally nor-mal, thus bringing about subtle and sometimes lethal changes in cellular function. In other words the anomaly state of health, the state of 'indifference' as Viktor called it, peculiar to all organisms, macro and micro alike, is disturbed. Cumulatively this has very serious conse- quences for all those organisms constantly ex- posed to it. In the process, all the natural condi- tions for creating and maintaining health are disrupted and the afflicted organism eventually falls victim to disease. In addition to the reduction in available oxygen due to over- consumption by vehicles (see chapter 2), which in humans produces a mild anoxia (oxygen starvation) coupled with a marginal rise in overall body temperature, the permanent establishment of slightly higher and therefore abnormal, unnatural ambient temperatures creates conditions suitable for the propagation of path- ogenic bacteria.

A graphic example of the damaging effect of excess heat on structure is shown in fig. 7.1, where a flame was applied to a metal plate upon which an orderly pattern of sand had been formed through vibration2. To further illustrate the effect of a rise in temperature here are some pertinent quotations from Viktor Schauberger3.

TO BE OR NOT TO BE: In Nature all life is a question of the minutest, but extremely precisely graduated differences in the particular thermal motion within every single body, which continually changes in rhythm with the processes of pulsation.

This unique law, which manifests itself throughout Nature's vastness and unity and expresses itself in every creature and organism, is the Law of Ceaseless Cycles that in every organism is linked to a certain timespan and a particular tempo.

The slightest disturbance of this harmony can lead to the most disastrous consequences for the major life forms.

In order to preserve this state of equilibrium, it is vital that the characteristic inner temperature of each of the millions of micro-organisms contained in the macroorganisms be maintained.

The fact that temperature plays a role in the development of cancer, however, has now at least been recognised in the sphere of mammography. According to a recent report4 con-cerning the detection of breast cancer in women, the milk-ducts in healthy women are regular, whereas in cancer-prone breasts (about 1 in 10 women) the milk-ducts are lumpy and irregular. Strange to relate, the degree of cancer risk is determined by temperature! Using a Chronobra scanning device, the daily changes in breast temperature are measured at 1 minute intervals. It was determined that there was a different rhythm for high-risk breasts and that their overall temperature was higher than healthy ones. Now what did Viktor Schauberger just say?

While on the subject, on average there are 85,000 dust particles in a litre of city air. Not only that, but in France, for example, investiga- tions determined that the street-air (warmer than normal air) in Paris contained 36,000 path- ogenic bacteria per cubic metre, whereas in the forest and over the fields this reduced very sharply to only 490 airborne germs per cubic metre, 0.0136% of the above figure. Other data also infer a correlation between green space and disease, as exemplified in the comparative levels of tuberculosis in relation to the population of three major European cities set out below5.

London 14.0% green space 1.9% tuberculosis Berlin 10.0% green space 2.2% tuberculosis Paris 4.5% green space 4.1% tuberculosis

Under the direction of Dr. John Whitelegg at Lancaster University, England, a recent two- year scientific study6 of 1,000 households fronting on major traffic arteries and the health of their occupants has established a direct con- nection between respiratory diseases and traffic fumes (corollary of traffic heat). It was found that these people had a higher incidence of disease, the most common complaints being headaches, sore throats, breathlessness, itching eyes and a general lack of energy. What is sur- prising here is that it has taken so long to con- firm scientifically what would appear to be quite obvious.

In their aggregation all the various factors mentioned above change, accelerate, retard or otherwise inhibit the normal healthy metabo- lism of any organism constantly exposed to them. This changes the natural movement of energy associated with the metabolism in ques- tion which inevitably alters the state of 'indif- ference' (temperaturelessness) peculiar to it.

Another interesting facet, which relates to a conversation I once had with an experienced glider pilot, further highlights the differences in the forms of temperature produced by forest and city respectively and is indicative of the inferior quality and dynamics of the rising tech- nical heat from factory chimneys, car exhausts, concrete surfaces, metal roofs, etc. As the gain- ing of altitude is the most crucial factor in glid- ing, I asked where the best thermals (rising air currents) were to be found. Expecting him to say that these occurred over obvious heat sources, such as towns, I was surprised to learn that it was large areas of natural forest that pro- duced them.

With the continued use of present methods, it is therefore no wonder that the incidence of cancer and other diseases is rising so quickly But worse than this, they are infecting younger and younger age groups. Acute suffering and previously unheard of ailments are increasing alarmingly and all manner of cures are attempted - surgery, radiation, chemotherapy - and yet no-one perceives that it is inherent in the heat-generating and health-debilitating systems of technology, forestry, land and water resources management that we have contrived and with which we have managed to debase all life.

Thorough knowledge of these two forms of temperature and their application will in time put an end to this dreadful scourge. There is therefore no time to be lost in implementing a programme of in-depth investigation of the theories put forward by Viktor Schauberger leading to their practical application, for therein may lie the main chance for our ultimate salvation.

Notes

1.           "The Biological Vacuum - The Optimal Driving Force For Machines", by Viktor Schauberger: Implosion No.53, p.28.

2.           From Kymatik/Cymatics by Hans Jenny, photos by Christiaan Stuten: Basilius, Basel, Switzerland (now defunct), ISBN 3-85560-009-0.

3.           "The Forest and its Significance" ("Der Wald un seine Bedeutung"), by Viktor Schauberger: Tau

magazine, Vol.146, p.2.

1.           "Beyond 2000", Channel 7 Television, Australia 25th June 1991.

2.           Our Common Future: Oxford Univ. Press. Oxford/New York.

3.           BBC 9.00pm news broadcast, Monday 17th December 1993; and The Times newspaper, p.9, 14th December 1993.

8 THE NATURE OF

How blossomingly I rejoice! All hail to the new! All is born of water and upheld by water too! Transpierced thus am I by beauty and by truth! Oh, great ocean, grant us thine eternal ruth!

For wouldst thou not send clouds, nor bounteous streams endow, Nor perfect the currents, nor rivers here and there bestow, Then where would mountains be and what of plains and world? For thou on alone it is that keeps this freshest life unfurled. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

8.1 Water - a Living Substance

ATER! Where do we begin our quest in search of the true nature of this remarkable substance, this wondrous, many-facetted jewel, which is both Life and liquid? So primordial, primeval and fundamental is the function of water that it begs the question as to which came first, life or water. Thales of Miletus (640-546BC) described water as the only true element from which all other bodies are created, believing it to be the original substance of the cosmos. It was the only real substance, because it was imbued with the quality of Being. This view was also firmly held by Viktor Schauberger, who saw water as the 'original' substance formed by the subtle energies called into being through the 'original' motion of the Earth, itself the manifestation of even more sublime forces. Being the off-

WATER

spring or the 'First Born' of these energies, as he put it, he maintained and frequently asserted that "Water is a living substance!" a notion to which Goethe also subscribed in the above poem.1

As a living entity, Viktor saw water as the accumulator and transformer of the energies originating from the Earth and the Cosmos, and as such was and is the foundation of all life-processes and the major contributor to the conditions which make life possible. Not only that, but once mature, water is a being invested with the power of extraordinary giving and gives of itself to all things requir- ing life in the ECI's Great Plan. It is the ECI's faithful life-messenger and, in its eternal cycles, coils and twists in its natural move- ment about the path of evolution, like the serpents on Mercury's staff.

The Upholder of the Cycles which supports the whole of Life, is WATER. In every drop of water dwells a Deity, whom we all serve; there also dwells Life, the Soul of the 'first' substance - Water - whose boundaries and banks are the capillaries that guide it and in which it circulates.2 Viktor Schauberger

Water is therefore a being that has life and death. With incorrect, ignorant handling, however, it becomes diseased, imparting this condition to all other organisms, vegetable, animal and human alike, causing their even- tual physical decay and death, and in the case of human beings, their moral, mental and spiritual deterioration as well. With this awareness we can see just how vital it is that water should be handled and stored in such a

107

way as to avoid such disastrous conse- quences. When we fail to perceive water as a living entity which nurtures all life, we arrest water's creative cycles, we stop life and water is transformed into a dangerous enemy.

Viktor Schauberger's understanding of water and what he achieved as a result is well exemplified in this quotation from his book, Our Senseless Toil, written in 1933:

It is possible to regulate watercourses over any given distance without embankment works; to transport timber and other materials, even when heavier than water, for example ore, stones, etc., down the centre of such water-courses; to raise the height of the watertable in the surrounding coun- tryside and to endow the water with all those ele- ments necessary for the prevailing vegetation.

Furthermore it is possible in this way to render timber and other such materials non-inflammable and rot resistant; to produce drinking and spa- water for man, beast and soil of any desired composition and performance artificially, but in the way that it occurs in Nature; to raise water in a vertical pipe without pumping devices; to produce any amount of electricity and radiant energy almost without cost; to raise soil quality and to heal cancer, tuberculosis and nervous disorders.

... the practical implementation of this ... would without doubt signify a complete reorientation in all areas of science and technology. By application of these new found laws, I have already con-structed fairly large installations in the spheres of log-rafting and river regulation, which as is known, have functioned faultlessly for a decade, and which today still present insoluble enigmas to the various scientific disciplines concerned.3

But before going further, let us acquaint our- selves with some of the more commonly known facts about water. First of all, whence did water come? Obviously it cannot have come from the upper atmosphere, since as we saw in chapter 6 the water molecule is actually dissociated at high altitudes. Where else do we look then? If not above then per- haps below, because the atmosphere does not seem conducive to its formation. If below then where? Has it been contained in a crystalline state in ore-bearing rocks since the Earth began? There is some evidence to suggest that it has.

In The Divining Hand4 Christopher Bird describes the pioneering theories and discoveries of Stephan Riess in the United States, which like Viktor Schauberger's, completely contradicted established hydraulic theory. According to Stephan Riess under certain conditions the oxygen and hydrogen gases present in certain types of rock can be released due to the effects of geothermal heat and a process akin to triboluminescence, a phenomenon relating to the light given off by crystalline rocks under friction or violent pressure. This glow is attributed to the energy given off by the electrons contained the rocks as they return from a pressure-induced, excited state to their rest orbits. As a discharge it imparts free energy to the sur- rounding material, which could be sufficient to cause the hydrogen and oxygen released by the pressure to form new water under a process of cold oxidation.

Riess called this virgin water, and as a result of his knowledge he was able to tap straight into formations of hard rock of the right composition and obtain very large quantities of water, in some cases as much as 3,000 gallons per minute. All this right out in the middle of the desert, where no water could be expected. Unfortunately, his efforts to provide needy areas with copious quantities of superb quality, fresh water were sabotaged. As happened to Viktor Schauberger before him, Christopher Bird relates how Riess was slandered and his ideas brought into disrepute through the scur- rilous activities of certain high officials in the state of California, whose interests were threatened by Riess' discoveries.

As a liquid, water is chemically described as H2O and is a dipole molecule comprising two hydrogen atoms, each endowed with a positive charge, and one oxygen atom containing two negative charges. Due to the dis- tribution of the charges around the nucleus, the angle between the two hydrogen atoms is 104.35°, as shown in upper right-hand inset in fig. 8.1. According to Kenneth S. Davis and John Arthur Day, pure water is actually a mixture of 18 different molecular compounds and 15 different kinds of ions, making a total of 33 different substances5. In this regard The Secret Doctrine comments:

8: The Nature of Water 111

Even on the next higher plane, that single element which is defined on our Earth by current science, as the ultimate undecomposable constituent of some kind of matter, would be pronounced in the world of a higher spiritual perception as some- thing very complex indeed. Our purest water would be found to yield, instead of its two declared simple elements of oxygen and hydrogen, many other constituents, undreamt of by our terrestrial modern chemistry.6

In its pure form, being a compound of the two gases hydrogen and oxygen, water could technically be described as an oxide of hydrogen. Water is no self-contained, isolated substance, however, for it possesses other characteristics according to the medium or the organism in which it resides and moves, As a molecule, water has an extraordinary capacity to combine with more elements and compounds than any other molecule and is sometimes described as the universal solvent, As such it is able to provide the basis for an intimate intermixture of substances which Victor referred to as an 'emulsion'. The more complex the make-up of constituents dis- solved or suspended in water, the more complex the emulsion and the broader the spectrum of its properties. Carbon, its so- called inorganic counterpart, has a similar capacity above and beyond all other elements. At a physical level water is to be found in three states of aggregation, solid (ice), liquid (water) and gaseous (water vapour) and in terms of its structure as a liquid, it tends more to the crystalline, as it continually forms and re-forms nodes of temporary crystallisation, exhibiting a space-lattice structure, such as is shown in figs. 8.2 & 8.3 taken from a homeopathic study of water by Dr. Gerhard Resch and Prof. Viktor Gutmann7.

8.2 The Anomaly Point of Water

The anomalous expansion of water is also a factor of major importance. While this has already been partly covered in chapter 7, further elaboration is necessary. To recapitulate briefly: As a liquid, the behaviour of water differs from all other fluids. While all fluids become consistently and steadily denser with cooling, water, alone reaches its densest state at a temperature of +4° Celsius (39.2° Fahrenheit). This is the so-called 'anomaly point', which is decisive in terms of its potency and has a major influence on its quality. Below this temperature it once more expands. At +4°C water has a density of 0.99996 grams per cubic centimetre (g/cm3), has the least spacial volume and is virtually incompressible (fig. 8.1).

Plus 4°C also signifies the temperature where water has its the highest energy con- tent and is in what Viktor called a state of 'indifference'. In other words, when in its highest natural condition of health, vitality and life-giving potential, water is at an internal state of energetic equilibrium and in a thermally and spatially neutral condition. In order to protect water's health, energy and life-force, certain precautions must be taken, which will be addressed later. For the present it is important to realise that the +4°C anomaly is crucial to water's diverse functions. Viktor's theories about the temperature gradient and their implementation will be elaborated in the following section.

If water's temperature rises above +4°C, it expands. When it cools below this level then it also begins to expand and becomes specifically lighter. This anomalous expansion below +4°C is vital to the survival of fish life, for as the water expands and cools further it eventually crystallises as ice at 0°C, thus providing a floating, insulating sheath, which protects the aquatic life underneath from the harmful effects of severe external cold in winter. The specific gravity of water at +0°C = 0.99984g/cm3, whereas the specific gravity of ice at the same temperature = 0.9168g/cm3. As 1 spacial unit of water expands into ice, its volume increases in the ratio of 0.9168:0.99984, or 1:1.09058, which is equivalent to an increase in displacement of about 1/11th of its former volume as water. This is why ice floats.

8.3 Dielectrics and Electrolysis

While pure water's high dielectric value of 81, namely its capacity to resist the transfer of an electric charge, has already been mentioned in chapter 7, there is another aspect to this which, in the light of Viktor Schauberger's concept of hydrogen as the carrier of oxygen and carbone (fig. 5.1, see p. 83), needs to be looked at in relation to one of the major fallacies of science. Still taught as Gospel truth in all schools and universities, electrolysis is supposedly the process by which water is dissociated into its constituent atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. However from the above we know that pure water will not transmit an electric current and this factor is also used to measure the pollution of water using what are called electro-conductivity units or ecus. The greater the content of dis- solved and suspended matter in water, the greater its capacity to carry an electric current and the higher the values in ecus registered.

In order to set the process of electrolysis in motion, however, it is necessary to add some acid, such as sulphuric acid -H2SO4 - to the distilled water, the acid here always being referred to as the 'catalyst'. A catalyst is an ele- ment or agent which inaugurates a given reaction, but is not itself affected or changed in any way by it. This can be learnt from any physics textbook. From time to time, however, if electrolysis is to continue, more acid must be added otherwise the process will cease and all that will be left once again is water. But this acid was supposed to be the catalyst and therefore impervious to the effects of the electric current! What happened to it?

As the process of electrolysis proceeds, oxy- gen gas and hydrogen gas are indeed released, the negatively charged hydrogen ions migrating towards the positive electrode and the posi- tively charged oxygen ions towards the negative electrode. Are these released gases actually derived from the water, however, or do they originate from the added acid? Sulphuric acid is formed of 2 hydrogen atoms, 1 sulphur atom and 4 oxygen atoms. If these gases are in fact produced through the dissociation of the acid rather than the water, then the whole process of electrolysis as presently taught is a widespread fraud as Viktor claimed in his 1932 article "Electrolysis"8.

The Secret Doctrine also advances thought-provoking comment on what might be the state of being of the various elements of acid and water when combined as a mixture in electrolysis.

The question whether Hydrogen and Oxygen cease to exist when they combine to form water, is still a moot one, some arguing that since they are found again when water is decomposed, they must be there all the while; others contending that as they actually turn into something totally different they must cease to exist as themselves for the time being; but neither side is able to form the faintest conception of the real condition of a thing, which has become something else and yet has not ceased to be itself.9

It appears then that water retains its identity when in the electrolyte (the mixture of water and acid), and once the electrolytic process has been completed, then all that remains is again water.

A further life-giving property of water is its high specific heat and thermal conductivity (which were studied in chapter 6), namely the ability and the rate at which it absorbs and releases heat. This means that a large input or extraction of heat energy is required to bring about a change in density and temperature. The lowest point of the curve of the specific heat values for water, however, is +37.5°C or 99.5°F (fig. 8.1). It is remarkable that the lowed specific heat of this 'inorganic' substance water - lies but 0.5°C (0.9°F) above the normal +37°C (98.6°F) human blood temperature - at which the greatest amount of heat or cold is required to change the water's temperature. This property of water to resist rapid thermal change enables us, with blood composed of up to 90% water, together with many other animals and creatures, to survive a relatively large range and fluctuation of temperatures and still maintain our own internal bodily temperature. Pure accident so we are told, or is it by clever, symbiotic design?! If the blood in our bodies had a lower specific heat, it would mean that it would heat up much more rapidly to the point where we would either start to decompose or freeze if exposure was to extreme cold.

However, in our mechanistic world we are used to thinking about temperature in gross terms (automobile engines operate at temper- atures of l,000°C (l,832°F) or so and many

8: The Nature of Water 113

industrial processes employ extremely high temperatures. Despite the fact that we begin to feel unwell if our temperature rises by as little as 0.5°C (0.9°F), we fail to see that non- mechanical, organic life and health are based on very subtle differences in temperature. When our body temperature is +37°C (98.6°F) we do not have a 'temperature' as such. We are healthy and, recalling Viktor's view, are in an 'indifferent' or 'temperature-less' state. Just as good water is the preserver of our proper bodily temperature, our anomaly point of greatest health and energy, so too does it preserve this planet as a habitat for our continuing existence. Water in all its forms and qualities is thus the mediator of all life and deserving of the highest focus of our esteem.

Water and its vital interaction with the for- est was Viktor's principal preoccupation, viewing water as the 'Blood of Mother-Earth', which in contrast to Carl Riess' theories men- tioned earlier, was born in the womb of the high forest. This will be examined more fully later. Our mechanistic, materialistic and extremely superficial way of looking at things, however, prevents us from consider- ing water to be anything other than inorganic,

i.e. supposedly without life, but which, while apparently having no life itself, can nevertheless miraculously create life in all its forms.

Life is movement and is epitomised by water in a constant state of motion and transformation, both externally and internally. Flowing as water, sap and blood, this life molecule is the creator of the myriad life-forms on this planet. How then could it ever be construed as life-less as in the chemist's clinical view of water, defined as the inor- ganic substance H2O?

This cryptic symbol is a gross misrepresentation. Were water merely the sterile, distilled H2O as presently described by science, it would be poisonous to all living things. H2O or 'juvenile water' is sterile, distilled water and devoid of any so-called 'impurities'. It has no developed character and qualities. As a young, immature, growing entity, it grasps like a baby at everything within reach. It absorbs the characteristics and properties of whatever it comes into contact with or has attracted to itself in order to grow to matu- rity. This 'everything' - the 'impurities' -takes the form of trace elements, minerals, salts and even smells! Were we to drink pure H2O constantly, it would quickly leach out all our store of minerals and trace elements, debilitating and ultimately killing us. Like a growing child, juvenile water takes and does not give. Only when mature, i.e. when suitably enriched with raw materials, is it in a position to give, to dispense itself freely and

Fresh Water has

Water Type Distilled water Meteoric (rainwater)

Juvenile (immature water) Surface water (dams,

reservoirs, rivers) Groundwater Seepage-spring water True spring water Artesian water

Fig. 8.4

many principal qualities, which can be differentiated

according to drinking quality.

Description Purest water, contains no other elements. Contains some atmospheric gases.

Contains few minerals or trace elements. Contains some minerals and salts accumulated by

contact with the soil. Contains a greater quantity of minerals. As for groundwater. High in dissolved carbons and minerals Deep-lying water which may be fresh or saline and can contain a variety of dissolved elements and gases

Drinking Quality bad poor poor adequate

good good best variable

willingly, thus enabling the rest of life to develop.

8.4 Qualities of Water

ut what is this marvellous, colourless, tasteless and odourless substance, which quenches our thirst like no other fluid? Did we but truly understand the essential nature of water - a living liquid - we would not treat it so churlishly, but would care for it as if our lives depended on it, which undoubt- edly they do.

Apart from the actual treatment of water investigated in chapter 15, certain types of water are more suitable for drinking than others, the following being a general classification to be read in conjunction with fig. 8.4.

DISTILLED WATER This is what is considered physically and chemically to be the purest form of water. Having no characteristics other then total purity, it has a pre-programmed will to unite with or acquire, to extract or attract to itself all the substances it needs to become mature itself, and therefore absorbs and grasps at everything within reach. Such water is really quite dangerous if drunk continuously long- term. When distilled water (aqua destillata) is drunk it acts as a purgative, stripping the body of trace minerals and elements. On occasion it has been used for its short-term therapeutic effect, such as in the so-called 'Kneipp cure', where it acts to purge the body of excessive deposits of various materials.

METEORIC WATER - RAINWATER While the purest naturally available water, noxious atmospheric pollutants aside, meteoric water or rainwater is also unsuitable for drinking in the long term. It is marginally better than distilled water and slightly richer in minerals, due to the absorption of atmospheric gases and dust particles. As a living organism it is still in adolescence, still immature, and needs to undergo certain ripening processes in order to be able to be absorbed by the body and to be of benefit to it. When drunk as melted snow-water, it also gives rise to certain deficiencies and if no other water is available on occasion can result in goitre, the enlargement of the thy- roid gland.

JUVENILE WATER Juvenile water, again, is immature water, but it is water coming from the ground. It has not matured properly on its passage through the ground. It emerges, perhaps in the form of geysers, etc., from quite a long way down. It has not yet resolved itself into a mature struc- ture and is therefore still of 2-star quality. It contains a few minerals, some trace element-and only small quantities of dissolved car- bons, but again as drinking water it is not very high grade.

SURFACE WATER Surface water - dams, reservoirs, etc. - con- tains some minerals and salts accumulated by contact with the soil and also from the atmosphere but, generally speaking it is not a very good quality water, partly because of atmospheric exposure to heavy oxygenation and to heat exposure from the Sun. The Sun's heat removes a great deal of the character and energy of water.

GROUNDWATER Ground water is already much better, often expressing itself as a seepage-spring, which is water emanating from lower levels and which seeps out at the surface after passage along the top of an impervious stratum. It has a larger quota of dissolved carbons which are the most important ingredient in high quality water, apart from other trace salts.

TRUE SPRING WATER True springwater, and we shall explore the differences between a seepage spring and a true spring later on, is very high in dissolved carbons and minerals, and of the highest pos- sible quality. Its high state of health and vital- ity is affirmed by its shimmering, vibrant bluish colour, which is not evident in inferior waters. Such water is ideal for drinking, if it can be obtained. Unfortunately there are now

8: The Nature of Water 115

very few true, high-quality springs left, due to the destruction of the environment. Apart from the above waters, there are artesian waters obtained from bores, which are of unpredictable quality. At times they may be saline and at others, brackish, or fresh. One can never be sure that bore-water will necessarily be of drinking quality. Well-water would probably lie between groundwater and seepage-spring water, but most probably can be likened and classified as groundwater. Once again it depends on how deep the well is and what stratum of water is trapped.

But what are we actually given to drink? This subject of vital interest to us all, which so intimately affects our life, health and well- being, will be discussed in a later chapter, because we must now turn our attention to the temperature gradient which, after the anomaly point of +4°C, is the next most important factor in the understanding of water and its proper, natural handling.

8.5 The Temperature Gradient

part from other factors (some cannot be

A defined quantitatively), encompassing such aspects as turbidity (opaqueness), impurity, and quality, the most crucial factor affecting the health and energy of water is temperature, the various aspects of which will be addressed in greater detail later, but first of all a general overview is in order. Conceived in the cool, dark cradle of the virgin forest, water ripens and matures as it slowly mounts from the depths. On its upward way it gathers to itself trace elements and minerals. Only when it is ripe, and not before, will it emerge from the bowels of the Earth as a spring. As a true spring, in contrast to a seepage spring, this has a water tempera- ture of about +4°C (39.2°F). Here in the cool, diffused light of the forest it begins its long, life-giving cycle as a sparkling, lively, translucent stream, bubbling, gurgling, whirling and gyrating as it wends its way valleywards. In its natural, self-cooling, spi- ralling, convoluting motion, water is able to maintain its vital inner energies, health and purity. In this way it acts as the conveyor of all the necessary minerals, trace elements and other subtle energies to the surrounding environment.

Naturally flowing water seeks to flow in darkness or in the diffused light of the forest, thus avoiding the damaging direct light of the Sun. Under these conditions, even when cascading down in torrents, a stream will only rarely overflow its banks. Due to its cor- rect natural motion, the faster it flows, the greater its carrying capacity and scouring ability and the more it deepens its bed. This is due to the formation of in-winding, longitudinal, clockwise-anti-clockwise alternating spiral vortices down the central axis of the current, which constantly cool and re-cool the water, maintaining it at a healthy tempera- ture and leading to a faster, more laminar, spiral flow.

To protect itself from harmful effects of excess heat, water shields itself from the Sun with over-hanging vegetation, for with increasing heat and light it begins to lose its vitality and health, its capacity to enliven and animate the environment through which it passes. Ultimately becoming a broad river, the water becomes more turbid, the content of suspended small-grain sediment and silt increasing as it warms up, its flow becoming slower and more sluggish.

However, even this turbidity plays an important role, because it protects the deeper water-strata from the heating effect of the Sun. Being in a denser state, the colder bot- tom-strata retain the power to shift sediment of larger grain-size (pebbles, gravel, etc.) from the centre of the watercourse. In this way the danger of flooding is reduced to a minimum. The spiral, vortical motion men- tioned earlier, which eventually led Viktor Schauberger to the formation of his theories concerning 'implosion', creates the condi- tions where the germination of harmful bacteria is inhibited and the water remains disease-free.

The omission of temperature in the form of the 'temperature gradient' in all hydraulic calculation has resulted in the most devastat- ing floods and the ruination of almost all waterways. While flow velocity, shear force (sweeping force), sediment load, turbidity, viscosity, to name a few, are taken into account in numerous formulae, the temperature gradient, which significantly affects the function of all these different factors, has so far been totally disregarded in the fields of river engineering, water supply, water resources management and the condition of water generally.

Apart from variations in its content of organic matter, minerals and salts, the so- called 'impurities', water has always been deemed a lifeless inorganic substance. There- fore, except for certain defined water-temper- atures required for specific purposes, cooling, heating, etc., the temperature or variations in temperature of any given water or water- body has been considered totally immaterial to the behaviour of the water itself, since the measured range of these variations has generally been rated too small to be capable of producing any noteworthy effect. This attitude has apparently remained unchanged.

In early July 1991 I attended a symposium on river engineering at the University of New England, Armidale, Australia, for the express purpose of discovering the state of the art in hydrology with regard to water temperature. The keynote speaker was Prof. John F. Kennedy (!!), a hydraulicist of world repute, director of the Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research and Hunter Rouse Professor of Hydraulics at the University of Iowa in the United States. As he spoke I sat ready with pencil and paper to record every mention of the word 'temperature'. By the end of the hour's very interesting address, in which Professor Kennedy expressed his great love of rivers, I had only one tick on my paper! Afterwards, wanting more precise data, I spoke with him for about 15 minutes, describing Viktor Schauberger's theories about water movement and temperature and the fact that in the 1930s they had had the full support of an equally world renowned hydrologist, Prof. Philipp Forchheimer, with whose work Professor Kennedy was acquainted. However, according to Kennedy, the influence of temperature on the dynamics of water flow was still considered negligible and therefore never taken into account. Having had this information straight from the horse's mouth, as it were, it is therefore to be concluded that temperature, as a factor in river engineering, is still ignored. As we shall see, however, it is precisely the small, some- times infinitesimal variations in temperature that are crucial to the natural, healthy move- ment of water and optimal flow-regimes in streams.

Viktor Schauberger defines the tempera- ture gradient, of which there are two forms, as follows:

A positive temperature gradient exists; a) when the temperature of the water

decreases and its density increases

towards the anomaly point of +4°C, or; b) when the density and temperature increase from freezing and below towards +4°C. c) When ground or water temperatures are

cooler than air temperatures.

A negative temperature gradient exists;

d) when the movement of temperature is away from +4°C, either upwards or downwards, both of which signify a decrease in density and energy.

In fig. 8.1 (p. 109) the direction of movement of these two temperature conditions are shown as two curves delineating the varia- tions of volume and density with tempera- ture. Here it can be seen how, with cooling, the volume decreases and the density increases, and vice versa with heating. A movement of temperature towards the anom- aly point of +4°C always involves a positive temperature gradient, whereas a movement in the opposite direction is indicative of a negative temperature gradient. Remember here that heat, or whatever is suspended in a given medium (air or water), always flows or is transported towards cold.

Both forms of temperature gradient are active simultaneously in Nature but, for there to be evolution instead of devolution, the positive temperature gradient must predominate. On both upward and downward paths life emerges at the intersection of these two 'temperaments' as it were, each of which has

8: The Nature of Water 117

different characteristics, properties, potential and opposite directions of movement or propagation. Whatever manifests itself as a result of the interaction of these mutually opposing essences depends on the relative proportions between them, which also determines their point of intersection. For example, if the posi- tive temperature gradient is very powerful, then the effect of the reciprocally weaker nega- tive temperature gradient is beneficial and promotes the outbirth into physical form of the highest quality substances. In more mathe- matical terms, if as seen in fig. 4.6 the total effect of two dialectic opposites equals the unity, i.e. 1x1=1, then if one of the aspects is reduced to a half, the value of the other is two. Despite the changed characteristics and properties, the overall value of the unity 1 has not been changed, however, because 1/2 x 2 equals 1. Conversely, if the roles and ratios are reversed and the negative temperature gradient is very dominant, then what unfolds as material substance is of inferior worth. For evolution and growth to proceed with increasing quality, vitality and health, which form is uppermost and at what level of reciprocity their interaction takes place is of absolutely crucial importance, for this not only affects the movement of water, the movement of sap in plants and the flow of blood in our veins, but also the configuration, structure and quality of the channels, ducts and vessels surrounding and guiding them, as will be seen later. As it flows, water acts completely differently according to whichever temperature gradient is in force. In its concentrative, cool- ing, energising function the +4°C-approach- ing, positive temperature gradient has a formative effect. It is a process whereunder living systems can be built up, since in water it draws the ionised substances together into intimate and productive contact, for here the contained oxygen becomes passive and is easily bound by the cool carbones, thereby contributing beneficially to healthy growth and development. The +4°C-deviating, negative temperature gradient, on the other hand, has a disintegrative, debilitative function, for with increasing warming the structure of a given body becomes more loosely knit with a commensurate loss in cohering energy. In this case, due to the rising temperatures, the oxygen become increasingly aggressive and reverses its role as co-creator and benefactor, turning into a destroyer and fosterer of dis- eases and pathogens.

In all waters, forests and other living organisms the temperature gradient is active in both positive and negative forms. In the natural processes of synthesis and decompo- sition each has its special role to play in Nature's great production, but each must enter upon the stage of life at its appointed time. The positive temperature gradient, however, like temperature Type A and bio- magnetism (see p. 103), must play the princi- pal role if evolution is to unfold creatively. Unfortunately with our myopic fixation on heat-producing and therefore destabilising, depletive technology, we have turned this sublime order upside down and are now reaping the ever more awesome fruits of our misguided labour.

Notes

1.         "The Ox and the Chamo is", by Viktor Schauberger: TAU magazine, No.146, p.30: Werner Zimmermann.

2.           Our Senseless Toil, Pt.I, p.ll.

3.           Our Senseless Toil, Pt.I, p.4.

4.           The Diving Hand by Christopher Bird: New Age Press, USA ISBN 0-87613-090-2.

5.           Water - The Mirror of Science by K.S. Davis & J.A.Day: Heinemann Educational, London, 1964.

6.           The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky, (Adyar Ed., 1971), Vol.1, p.125: Theosophical Pub., Adyar, India.

1.           Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen der Homoopathie, "Scientific Foundations of Homeopathy": Barthel & Barthel, Postfach 57, D-82069 Schaftlarn, Germany, ISBN 3-88950-025-0.

2.           Quoted from Viktor Schauberger's article, "Electrolysis", Der Wiener Tag newspaper, No.3443, p.20,18th December 1932.

3.           The Secret Doctrine, by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, (Adyar Edition 1971), Vol.2, p.266, Stanza II: Theosophical Publishing, Adyar, India.

9 THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

As a precursor to the evolvement of other life-forms, water's most vital function is its ceaseless, life-giving cycle through, around and over the Earth. This is normally referred to as the 'Hydrological Cycle' or 'Water Cycle' and involves the movement of water from subterranean regions to the atmosphere and back again. In terms of Viktor's concepts, however, we have to differentiate between the full and the half hydrological cycles, the differ- ence between which is presently unrecognised by science. This difference, however, is crucial to the understanding of what is presently happening worldwide climatically.

9.1 The Full Hydrological Cycle

ig. 9.1 shows the full hydrological cycle. FHere the series of upward, anti-clockwise spirals at the far left hand side depict the evaporation of water from the sea. This rises, condenses and falls as rain. Some sinks into the earth and some drains away over the ground-surface, depending on whether the ground is forested or not and what type of temperature gradient is active in a given situ- ation. In forested areas where, under natural conditions a positive temperature gradient normally prevails, the retention of runoff is in the order of 85%, about 15% being absorbed by the vegetation and humus and about 70% going towards groundwater, aquifer and underground stream recharge.

In the full hydrological cycle the ground- water table is recharged, the water is drawn up by and through the trees, transpires via the leaves and rises to form clouds. In this diagram the evaporation from the ocean is differentiated from the transpiration from the vegetation, the former depicted as rising spirals rotating anticlockwise, the latter as clockwise gyrating spirals. This differentiation has been made because, in my view, the energies in the transpired water from the forest are qualitatively different from those in water evaporated from the sea.

When water rises from the trees, it is ris- ing from a living thing, rather than from a body of water, such as the ocean. This is not to suggest that such a body of water is dead, but that it is inhabited by many creatures which consume almost all that it produces, both materially and in the way of energetic emanations, CO2, O2, etc. Therefore in terms of transpiration from the forest, we may be con- cerned with an energy form derived from a more dynamic living system which carries within it the imprint of the characteristics, traits, higher vibratory matrices of its mineral and trace-element content and the resonances of its living plant source. These additional qualities and energies are largely of immater- ial nature and best explained in terms of homeopathic theory, in which the finer the dilution of a substance, the greater its efficacacy as a healing medium. We shall therefore digress for a moment to acquaint ourselves with them.

The publication of an article entitled "Human Basophil Degranulation Triggered by Very Dilute Antiserum Against IgE" on the 30th June 19881, startled the scienhfic world, because the discovery it described

118

9: The Hydrological Cycle 119

Fig. 9.1 The full hydrological cycle The "FULL CYCLE" of water, the full hydrological cycle, is characterised by the following phases:

·                 Evaporation from oceans and evapo-transpiration from vegetation;

·                 Rising water-vapour;

·                 Cooling and condensing:

·                 Formation of clouds;

·                 Precipitation as rain;

·                 Infiltrates the ground under positive temperature gradient;

·                 Recharge of groundwater and aquifers;

·                 Maintenance and regulation of height of groundwater table;

·                 Formation of +4°C centre-stratum in groundwater;

·                 Creation of underground retention basins; Passage through the +4°C centre-layer of the groundwater;

·                 Purification at this temperature;

·                 Further sinking into the subterranean aquifers due to its own weight;

·                 Transition to a vaporous state due to the influence of the Earth's hot interior;

·                 Rising again towards the ground-surface with the simultaneous uptake of nutrients;

·                 Cooling of the water and deposition of nutrients;

·                 Draining away over the ground-surface;

·                 Evaporating and forming clouds;

·                 Falling again as rain, and so on.

could not be explained by the ordinary laws of physics. The article was the result of metic- ulous research began in 1983 by Professor Jacques Benveniste of the French National Institute for Health and Medical Research laboratory (INSERM) at the University of Paris-Sud, carried out at the instigation of Bernard Poitevin, a homeopathic researcher, this new avenue of scientific enquiry was aimed at testing the biological effects of homeopathic dilutions, and by extension, the efficacy of homeopathic medicines and the validity of homeopathic concepts.

The main ingredients of the experiment are basophils (a jelly-like white blood cell and anti-immunoglobin E -or algE), and a staining dye, toluene blue, whose application enables the otherwise invisible basophils to become visible. The effect of exposure of the cells thus stained to the antibody IgE, which Michel Schiff refers to as a "biological 'paint stripper'" or 'eraser'2 is to render them par- tially or wholly invisible. This permitted the researchers to determine the extent to which a reaction had taken place in the basophils exposed to the antibody solution. According to Professor Benveniste, the reaction occurs even when the antibody dilutions amount to 1 part in 10120 parts of distilled water, that is to say, a dilution in the proportion of 1:1 +119 zeros. To give an idea of the vast magnitude of the above figure, it is estimated by astronomers that the number of stars in the Universe amount to about 10 to the power of 20, i.e. 1 + 19 zeros or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000.

In these experiments one drop of what is described homeopathically as the 'mother-tinc-ture' (in this case algE) is added to 99 drops of distilled water. This mixture is then shaken up and down or 'succussed' for about 30 seconds. 1 drop of this new mixture is then added to a further 99 drops of distilled water. This process was repeated 120 times. However, when the basophils exposed to this extraordinarily dilute antibody were observed, the reaction, i.e. the change in their visibility, could still be detected in a very large number of them.

Statistically, according to classic physics and chemistry, after 23 dilutions in which 100 trillion-billion molecules of distilled water were added to every molecule of the anti- body IgE, there should have been no mole- cule of the antibody left. This relates to the so-called avogadro constant, 6.022 52 x 1023, formulated by the Italian physicist Count Amadeo Avogadro di Quaregna (1776-1856), which determines the number of atoms or molecules in 1 mole of substance, 1 mole being the amount of matter containing the same number of elementary particles as there are atoms in 0.012kg of Carbon-12. This number is in the ratio of 1:1+23 zeros, so in con- sideration of the above dilution in the ratio of 1:1+119 zeros, it meant that there were effectively no material residues of the original substance left in the liquid.

Another experiment showed that, after the mother-tincture had been diluted 37 times, it was more than twice as effective as a solution that had been diluted thrice. It has been mooted by theoretical physicist Lynn Trainor of the University of Toronto, who carried out parallel experiments, that these reactions may be the result of a 'physical' memory left in the water3.

What caused this effect? Why did the cells still react with such an over-astronomically dilute solution? Is it memory as Lynn Trainor suggests? In a certain sense memory could be construed as a phenomenon of resonance, of things once heard as it were, the immaterial energetic imprint of the image and qualities of the original preparation. Be that as it may, in my view it is for this reason that the tran- spirational material from the forest is endowed with a higher quality energetically than the water coming from the sea.

Just for the record, however, this discovery by Jacques Benveniste, like those of Stephan Riess and Viktor Schauberger before him, was evidently viewed as an unpardonable assault on the doctrines of established academe which tends to stray far from the principles of scienti- fic integrity and impartiality enunciated by Sir William Grove in chapter 1. As a result Benveniste became both target and victim of much opprobrium from orthodox science and medicine. Indeed, in October 1993 it was reported that he was to be evicted as head of the immunopharmacology unit at INSERM. Moreover the research unit itself, U-200, was also supposed to be closed down by the end of

9: The Hydrological Cycle 121

the year, Benveniste claiming that he was the victim of "ideological repression"4. Other forces have meanwhile been at work, however, for due to the subsequent verification of his findings at other independent institutions and the establishment of their apparent irrefutability, Benveniste has been accorded cer- tain international recognition and 'notoriety' in the interim. Fearing that it would suffer the same scorn it had heaped on Benveniste, INSERM have continued to pay his and his sec- retary's alaries, although it has withheld all funding for further research and refused any allocation for other day-to-day expenses and the employment of laboratory staff, for which Beneviste himself must pay. On a happier note however, while INSERM continues to maintain its obdurate stance, other more enlightened individuals have deemed Benveniste's research on water to be so important that an organisa- tion 'Science Innovative' was formed with the specific purpose of providing him with moral support and financing his currently on-going research.5 Returning now to the description of the full hydrological cycle, the water first evapo- rates from the oceans and the forest. The rising water vapour cools with altitude, condenses, forms clouds, aggregates into larger droplets and precipitates as rain. Precipitation occurs when two systems combine, which in their separated condition float within the ambient energy-field, be it of liquid or aeriform nature, thus creating a mass in excess of the volume of air or liquid they displace. With full forest cover the ground temperature is cooler than the incident rainwater which infiltrates the ground under the influence of a positive temperature gradient, i.e. the temperature decreases from the air through the ground towards the +4°C anomaly point of water in the central stratum of the groundwater body. Falling on the cooler ground, the warmer rainwater is readily arsorbed, the groundwater is recharged and aquifers and subterranean waterways are developed. Rainwater can only infiltrate under a positive temperature gradient. A corollary of this is that the maintenance and the height of the groundwater table is wholly dependent amongst other things on the amount of infiltration and the presence of a positive temperature gradient.

Recalling that the temperature of absolute zero is -273.15°C and that the temperature spectrum in which we live lies roughly between -10°C and +40°C, any general change in a downward direction would have the direst consequences not only for our continuing exis- tence on this planet, but for all other life-forms as well. It is therefore of vital importance to our survival that this bandwidth of temperatures, largely determined and regulated by the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere, should remain unaltered. Moreover, any activity of ours which reduces the naturally occur- ring water vapour content of the atmosphere should be prevented because it will inevitably lower the World's overall temperature. This is because there will no longer be sufficient water to retain the prescribed amount of heat.

Although all the evidence is there in the way of deserts, it seems that mankind has never learnt that to take away the trees is to take away the water. It is the forest cover that is responsible for fine-tuning the content of water vapour in the atmosphere and for the creation of fresh water itself. Through the continuous removal of forest, we will gradu- ally approach the condition where what we might term the 'base quantity' of water provided by the oceans, which raises the atmos- pheric water level to a certain degree, is no longer tempered by the additional transpiration from the forest. It is this which augments the overall amount of water vapour both quantitatively and qualitatively, and at the same time raises the ambient temperatures sufficiently to enable us to exist.

Unfortunately this alarming disturbance of the natural cycles is already far advanced. The increasingly chaotic weather patterns we presently experience are merely the legitimate consequence of an ever more disorderly and fragmented distribution of water vapour. In some areas there is an excessive concentration, resulting in an over-accumulation of heat, a sharp rise in temperature, massive downpours and flooding, while in others there is virtually no water vapour at all, producing both severe drought conditions and premature, local cool- ing. The combined effect of both these processes is to provoke increasingly frequent and violent storms as these two extremes of temperature clash together in the process of restoring Nature's equilibrium.

cycle shown in fig. 9.2 has the same basic format as the full cycle, but in this instance the trees shown in fig. 9.1 have been removed from the land surface; note that the heavy broken line, representing the sub-surface

9.2 The Half Hydrological Cycle

n contrast, the half hydrological cycle is the condition that presently prevails almost worldwide. The half hydrological

movement of groundwater is missing. The type of evaporation changes, since it is no longer sourced from living things, but from barren ground, and may well be the reposi- tory of destructive rather than creative ener- getic imprints.

The "HALF CYCLE", in contrast, has the following features:

·                 Evaporation from ocean;

·                 Rising water-vapour;

·                 Cooling and condensing:

·                 Formation of clouds;

·                 Precipitation as rain;

·                 No infiltration of rainwater due to negative temperature gradient;

·                 Rapid run-off over the ground surface;

·                 No groundwater recharge;

·                 Sinking water table;

·                 Cessation of natural supply of nutrients to vegetation;

·                 Under certain conditions, major flooding can occur;

·                 Excessively fast re-evaporation;

·                 Over-saturation of atmosphere with water-vapour;

·                 Rapid reprecipitation as storm-rain.

One flood therefore produces the next, or no rain falls at all and drought conditions prevail.

9: The Hydrological Cycle 123

Once the forest has been removed, the exposed ground heats up rapidly, all the more so if dry, and to much higher temperatures. A negative temperature gradient now prevails, because the ground temperature in general is hotter than the incident rain; in other words the temperature increases from the clouds into the ground. If the rainfall is excessive, then flooding inevitably occurs. We have all seen how cold water sizzles and skitters rapidly sideways when it falls on a hot-plate. A hot, dry ground-surface, pro- duces the same effect, making it impossible for the the rainwater to infiltrate and in many hot countries denuded of vegetation, dry valleys and creeks are suddenly engulfed by a wall of water as terrifying flash-floods sweep away everything in their path. With no longer any trees to absorb it, the surface water runs off immediately, spreading over wide areas, thereby increasing the rate of evap- oration locally. This overloads the atmosphere with water vapour and flooding is either soon repeated or precipitation occurs elsewhere, sometimes far away from the original source of the water vapour, and devastating drought ensues regionally. One flood therefore begets the next, or precipitates drought conditions. Over the last few years we have all become aware of the increasingly disastrous flooding worldwide, a process that under the present conditions is self-perpetuating. In December 1993, for example, the record flooding of the Rhine caused inundations not seen since 1743. This was repeated in even more devastating measure in January 1995. Until a sufficient number of trees are replanted; not just a billion, but several hundred billions, we will be subjected to the unrelenting, merciless cycle of drought, flood, drought, flood, particularly in equatorial and warm temperate zones. There is only one solution and that is to reafforest this planet on a massive scale now! A further horrific consequence of the half cycle is that there is no groundwater recharge, the groundwater table sinks and the supply of nutrients to the vegetation from below ceases. This is what Viktor Schauberger called a 'biological short-circuit', for apart from the rapid transfer of substanceless water to the atmosphere, under a half hydrological cycle the nutrients present in the upper zones of the groundwater table, which are normally raised up by the trees to a level accessible to other lesser plants, are left below and sink with the sinking groundwater. It subsides to levels far beyond the reach of even deep-rooted trees, taking all soil moisture and trace-elements down with it. No water, no life and the desert reigns supreme. The groundwater is virtually lost forever, vanished into the bowels of the Earth from whence it originally came.

Not only is water lost in the depths, but it also begins to be lost at great heights. The initially greater intensity of thunderstorms and storm activity following the onset of the half- cycle, raises the water vapour to levels far higher than normal, even to as much as 40-80 kilometres. Here it reaches altitudes where it is exposed to much stronger ultra-violet and high-energy gamma-radiation, which dis- sociate the water-molecule, separating the oxygen from the hydrogen. Due to its lesser specific weight the hydrogen then rises, while the oxygen sinks. Worst of all, all that was once water has effectively been removed altogether. It has gone, and gone for good.

This initiates a process, in which the atmos- phere is first forced to get warmer due to the overcharge of water vapour, but then, as the water rises higher, it is dissociated and disappears, and the atmosphere cools, because the amount of heat-retaining water vapour has diminished. What follows is a new ice age. All this was elaborated in detail in Viktor Schau- berger's writings some 60 years ago.

Clearly, the hitherto unrecognised differ- ence between the half and full hydrological cycles is extremely important. Only when this has become known and generally understood by the public at large and sufficient economic and political pressure applied, can appropriate remedial action be taken to counter the inevitable outcome. It is in our urgent interest to restore the full hydrological cycle as quickly as possible, for the full cycle means life and continuing exis- tence, whereas the other signifies death and extinction.

9: The Hydrological Cycle 125

9.3 Temperature Gradients and Nutrient Supply

We shall now examine the temperature gradients in the ground and their effects in connection with figs. 9.3, 9.4 & 9.5, because the solution, transport and deposition of nutri- ents are all functions of the temperature gradient. Positive and negative temperature gradients produce opposite effects. The direction of the temperature gradient indicates the direction of movement. The direction of energy or nutrient transfer is always from heat to cold. Vikttor Schauberger's important principle on this subject states that under the exclusion of light air the precipitation of salts and min- erals occurs with cooling, whereas with expo- sure to light and air precipitation takes place with heating. In both cases the highest quality matter is precipitated last. In the former case all the various nutrients and salts are deposited well below the ground surface as the water cools to +4°C. In the latter case, however, due to heat-evaporation and little penetration, the lowest quality nutrients are precipitated at the surface, which not only has dire consequences for soil fertility, but also for the proper formation of trees, as we shall see later. To recapitulate, a positive temperature gradient occurs when the incident rainwater is warmer than the receiving soil. This naturally implies that the soil is protected from the heat- ing effect of the Sun by trees and other vegeta- tion and, if the whole surface of the Earth is forested, then the groundwater table hugs the configuration of the ground-surface. As shown in fig. 9.3 the water infiltrates down to the lower strata, the groundwater body and aquifers are recharged, subterranean retention basins are created and the salts (shown as a dotted mass) remain at a level where they can- not contaminate the upper strata and are not damaging to those plants unable to metabolise them. Should a part of the forest be felled and the ground surface exposed to the direct light of the Sun, as in fig. 9.4, the temperature of ground in that area rises.

With this in mind it is essential that if any felling is to occur, then the trees should never be cut at the top of a hill. This creates a bald patch exposed to the Sun's heat and effectively

reduces the capacity of the groundwater to rise as high as it might otherwise do were the trees left untouched. If the temperature of the incident rainwater is, say, +18°C and the temperature of the receiving ground surface +20°C, the rain will not penetrate, but will flow off laterally to areas where it can, always presuming that a healthy balance between open space and forest has been maintained. In such a case problems of salinity will be kept to a minimum, since the overall level of the groundwater table is not unduly affected.

It does rise, however, under the areas where the trees have been removed, due to the geothermally induced upward pressure from below and the reduction in the quantity of overburdening groundwater lying above the +4°C centre-stratum. In other words the counteracting downward pressure has been diminished. (This effect is discussed in more detail in chapter 10.) As this water rises so too are the salts elevated, though in this case not into the root-zone of the vegetation. However, if all the trees are removed (fig. 9.5), then there is no rainwater penetration at all, the groundwater table initially rises, bringing up all the salts with it, only eventually to sink or disappear altogether, because under these conditions no recharge is possible. This is how oversalination of the soil occurs, and the only way the problem can be remedied is to recreate a positive temperature gradient through reafforestation.

In the beginning such trees will have to be pioneer, salt-loving trees and other primitive plants, such species being the only ones that can survive under such conditions. Later, as the soil climate improves and its salt con- tent diminishes, other species of tree can replace them since, over a period of time and due to the cooling of the ground by the shading of the pioneer trees, the rainwater enters the ground, taking the salts with it. Eventually the pioneer trees die off, because the evolved soil conditions are now no longer suitable, and the dynamic balance of Nature is restored.

Irrigation only exacerbates the problem, because during the night the ground temper- atures cool somewhat, allowing the irrigation water to percolate a certain distance into the upper, now salt-containing strata. There it collects the salts and, with the increase in

9: The Hydrological Cycle 127

temperature during the day, the atmosphere rises as it becomes specifically lighter, drawing up the infiltrated irrigation water plus its acquired salts, which through exposure to light and heat are deposited, and through

evaporation are left lying in the uppermost soil level. The problem of salination varies according to latitude, altitude and season, since these also affect the ambient ground temperatures, the intensity of the Sun's radia-

Fig. 9.7 Negative Temperature Gradient

If the ground temperatures are hotter than the river water, then a negative temperature gradient from river to ground

exists and the transport of nutrients and salts takes place from the ground strata to the river. The ground strata are

leached of their various minerals and trace elements, leading to a nett loss of biochemical material. Increasing soil

infertility and river salinity results. The groundwater table also sinks for lack of resupply.

Fig. 9.8 The orientation of a river relative to the general position and height of the Sun also affects the nutrient supply. In stretches of rivers where the flow is either east->west or west->east, the side nearest the sun tends to be shaded more frequently. The water on this side is therefore cooler and on the opposite side, warmer. This produces an asymmetrical channel profile as the result of an asymmetrical temperature distribution. Should the side nearest the Sun be suitably forested, then the ground temperatures on this side are also cooler and a positive temperature gradient exists in the direction river->ground, permitting the absoprtion of moisture, trace elements and nutrients from the river. If the ground-surface on the opposite side of the river has been cleared, the ground temperatures there will be hotter, a positive temperature gradient then prevails in the direction ground->river, leading to the absorption of soil-moisture and nutrients by the river. One side of the river therefore tends to be more fertile than the other.

tion and the length of the periods of the ground's exposure to heat.

There are other conditions which also pertain to nutrient flow and, while slightly out of place here, since rivers and stream management will be discussed more fully in later chapters, it nevertheless seems more appropriate to address them while we are on the subject. Through the corrasion and abrasion of their sediment, all healthy rivers and streams are metabolisers and transporters of nutritive material, and as such are major contributors to the supply of nutrients to the surrounding vegetation. However they can only impart nutrients where the con- ditions are conducive to a nutrient transfer, i.e. where a positive temperature gradient between water and ground prevails.

Fig. 9.6 shows a river flowing through an entirely forested area. As an illustration the river water has a temperature range of between +10°C and +8°C from surface to riverbed. In contrast the ground temperatures under the forest are cooler, ranging from +8°C at the surface to +4°C at the level of the groundwater centre-stratum. The river water is therefore warmer than the surrounding soil, a positive temperature gradient exists and the transfer of nutrients, energy and moisture takes place from warmer to cooler regions, namely from the river in the direction of the ground. The fertility of the soil is enhanced and the groundwater table recharged.

Conversely, if the opposite condition of a negative temperature gradient prevails as shown in fig. 9.7, then the flow of energy, moisture and nutrients proceeds from the warmer ground strata towards the cooler river. Here the river actually extracts from the ground the nutrients which have themselves been raised to the upper strata due to the processes mentioned earlier and illustrated in fig. 9.5 above. This results in an increasing leaching of the minerals, trace-elements and nutrients from the surrounding soil, leading to a nutrient deficit and eventual infertility. For the same reasons no groundwater recharge results. A corollary of this phenomenon is that the longer a river flows through irrigated, sunlit farmlands, the more it becomes contaminated with salts, artificial fertilisers, pesticides etc. making it increasingly unusable as a source of water in the lower reaches.

In fig. 9.8 both negative and positive temperature gradients are active simultaneously. Here the variation in river water temperature, again for the purposes of discussion, is from +17°C at the water surface to +13°C at the bot- tom. The ground under the forested area on one side of the river has lower temperatures than the river water, whereas the cleared, tree- less land on the opposite side gives rise to higher ground temperatures. In this instance the river acts to convey nutrients from the warmer left bank to the cooler right bank following the dictates of the prevailing temperature gradient which, from examination of the various ground temperatures, on the left hand side is negative and the right hand side positive. The cooling effect of the forest also affects the shape of the channel profile and is mir- rored in the greater depth of water on that side, since cooler water flows faster and in a more laminar fashion, removing sediment and thereby deepening the bed at that point.

Notes

1.           British scientific journal Nature, 30th June 1988.

2.           The Memory of Water — Homeopathy and the Battle of Ideas in the New Science by Michel Schiff, Thorsons, an imprint of Harper Collins, 1995, ISBN 0-7225- 3262-8.

3.           Information from Brauer Biotherapies, 1 Para Road, P.O.Box 234, Tanunda 5352, So. Australia.

4.           Nexus New Times magazine, Vol.2, No.17, Dec.1993-Jan.1994, quoting from New Scientist 23rd October 1993.

5.           Christopher Bird has kindly supplied information from Mme Annie Asada, director for develop-

ment at 'Science Innovative', and from Jack Dupre, a close associate of Dr. Marie Nonclerce pharmacist and author of a book onAntoine Bechamp; (Louis Pasteur, Bechamp's contempo- rary, was responsible for suppressing his signif- cant findings). 'Science Innovative' was set up by Mme. Evelyne Besso who is also its President S.I.'s headquarters are presently situated at 30 Ave. D'Elyau, Paris 75116 (tel: 01.4656.6650). Its aim is to foster enquiry and interest into the essential nature of water, and to support Jacques Benveniste's continuing research.

10 THE FORMATION OF SPRINGS

There, where water splits in twain, Life is ere set free, unfolding its domain, And in emerging from its source, Water's blessed with vital, living force. There flock beasts, athirst for flowers, Midst thrusting boughs and leafy bowers. "God, Nature and Cosmos" by

J.W. von Goethe

10.1 Seepage and True Springs

Generally speaking, springs are understood as the emergence of groundwater that has encountered an impervious stratum. This type of spring is actually a seepage spring (fig. 10.1), but not a true spring. Under the correct conditions, namely under a positive temperature gradient - warmer rain, cooler ground, cooler substrata, etc - a seepage spring forms as water infiltrates, accumulates underground, meets an impervious layer and under the effect of gravity, drains away down the gradient to its point of egress. The temperature of seepage springs generally approximates the temperature of the ground-strata through which the water passes, which may be in the order of +6°C to +9°C. It contains a certain amount of dissolved salts and trace elements, but is not very rich in them. On the other hand, a true spring, and this is where the difference lies, is a spring which has a temperature of around +4°C. It evolves under completely different conditions and processes. Fig. 10.2 depicts a cross-section through a mountain and shows the various ground temperatures at different levels. These may not represent the true temperatures, but are indi- cated here as examples. Since there is a positive temperature gradient from the ground-surface inwards, it means that rainwater can always infiltrate. Recalling that this is immature water, it greedily absorbs all the elements it can. Undesirable elements, salts, etc, lying in the upper strata are therefore dissolved by the percolating rainwater and carried down into the depths, where they are eventually precipitated as the water cools to +4°C. In this densest state at the centre of the groundwater body, the +4°C centre-stratum, the water no longer has any room for them. They are expelled from it and left in a zone above the now fresh groundwater table, where they are accessed by vari- ous deep-rooted species of trees, whose job it is to metabolise and transform them and to raise them up to the higher levels, making them available to other shallower-rooted forms of vegetation.

We might recall what Viktor Schauberger formulated on this theme, that under the exclusion of light and air the precipitation of salts and minerals occurs with cooling, whereas with exposure to light and air precipitation takes place with heating.

As the rainwater enters the ground, it exerts increasing pressure on the +4°C centre-stratum of the groundwater body. Due to this overburdening pressure from above, the lowermost strata of the groundwater body are themselves forced downwards into regions where the ground temperatures begin to rise owing to geothermal activity. As a result, the water in these strata begins to expand, creating a counter-pressure to the pressure from above.

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Fig. 10.1 Seepage spring Seepage springs occur when water infiltrating into the ground (positive temperature gradient) encounters an impervious stratum. Due to gravity it seeps down the inclined plane of this stratum and emerges where this meets the outer ground surface. The rate of outflow is principally determined by the amount of infiltrated rainwater and its temperature roughly conforms to that of the surrounding strata. They are not often very cold. Establishment of a true groundwater table does not arise.

True springs come into being because of pressure acting from above and below on the +4°C centre-stratum of the groundwater, which at this temperature is incompressible. This centre-stratum is squeezed between the weight of the over-burdening water-strata above and the water-strata lying below it, which try to expand due to increasing heat from the Earth's interior. Finding no other avenue of escape from this immense pressure, the +4°C centre-stratum is therefore forced to move either laterally or vertically, ultimately emerging as springs. This is why springs are often to be found near the tops of mountains, where no sufficient catchment for a seepage spring exists. True springs normally exhibit temperatures closely approximating +4°C. This combination of opposing pressures is also responsible for regulating the height of the groundwater table.

10: The Formation of Springs 131

The +4oC centre-stratum, which is incompress- ible at this temperature, is therefore increasingly squeezed between these two opposing pressures, namely the overburden of infiltrating water from above and the expanding, sometimes super-heated water from below. Its only possible avenue of escape is either laterally or vertically, or a combination of both

On many mountains in Austria, for exam- ple, there are springs which emerge at between 100 and 200 metres below the summit. These mountain peaks are commonly composed of solid rock and, were such springs to be attributed seepage only, there is not sufficient catchment area to provide for their continuous, year-round discharge. The temperature of these springs always lies between +4°C and +5°C very cold water indeed. From this it can be inferred with some certainty that true springwater arises and moves within the central core of the groundwater body. As the springwater rises, while rich in car-bones, particularly in the form of carbonic acid, it is very largely deficient in dissolved oxygen, for during the course of the water's initial sink- ing, various organisms and tree roots have removed whatever dissolved oxygen was available in the infiltrating rainwater. By and large such water is therefore oxygen-deficient and, this deficiency is extreme and the water is drunk directly at the place where it gushes out of the ground, its emanation of carbon- dioxide vapours are breathed in at the same time. Mountain folk in Austria call these vapours the 'waterworm'; they are also known as choke-damp and are on occasion to be found in mines, the effect of which is to do precisely what its name suggests, and if no air containing oxygen is soon available then death follows. Since the water from these so-called 'poisoned springs' has no oxygen, it actively extracts this from the tissues in the area of the trachea, esophagus and stomach, while the undiluted carbon-dioxide vapour immedi- ately begins to attack the lungs for the same reason.

This affliction was also known as the 'van- ishing lung disease,' or in plain English, 'galloping consumption'. Those who are unfortunate enough to drink much of this water are

likely to die within a few days to the accompa- niment of excruciating stabbing pains in the chest. However, once the water has emerged and has flowed even ten metres, due to its con- voluting, splashing, flowing motion it has already made up for the lack of oxygen through its absorption from the atmosphere and the proper carbone-oxygen balance has again been restored.

The absorption of oxygen, however, has the effect of increasing the volume of the water. At a spring in Montenegro, which flowed down a smooth, unfissured face of rock, Viktor Schau- berger made careful measurements of the volume of flow directly at the mouth and metre by metre below it. He discovered that it increased significantly. There being no possibility of any additional inflows due to the unbroken formation of the rock, the only possible answer was that this resulted from the absorp- tion of oxygen.

10.2 The Rising of Springwater

n Our Senseless Toil Viktor briefly describes a I24-hour experiment designed to show the dynamics of true springs, the diurnal fluctuation in the height of the groundwater table and the flow of sap in trees. As we said earlier, there is no condition of equilibrium in Nature. The experimental arrangement shown in fig. 10.3, consists of a U-shaped tube with open connections on one arm to two capillary tubes and on the other to four capillary tubes. A certain quantity of pure quartz sand sufficient to close the internal diameter is placed in the bot- tom of the U-tube and saturated with salt water. The effect of this saltwater and sand is to separate and prevent direct communication between the contents of the two rising arms of the U-tube. These are then filled with fresh, high-grade springwater, containing little or no oxygen, which has not been exposed to the Sun, or other light or any atmospheric influence. The U-tube is then placed in an insulated vessel, such as a bucket, containing some ice at the bottom, and the whole filled with good, clean loam. The ice at the bottom is necessary to create an artificial zone of +4°C at the base of the U-tube and a positive temperature gradient from the outer surface of the loam inwards.

The whole arrangement is then placed out- side under the Sun's heating influence. Once the lowest water has reached its ice-induced anomaly point of +4°C, where it attains its highest density and weight, and the higher-lying water begins to heat up, losing its 'temperatureless' state, the water slowly rises up the arm to which the bundle of four capillary tubes is attached and overflows due to its greater communication with atmospheric influences; the water in the other arm remain- ing at rest.

While I have not found more explicit details of this experiment in the material in my pos- session, I think this upward movement is most probably due to two factors:

1) the conversion with warming of the car-

bonic acid content into carbon dioxide bub

bles, which rise, pushing individual packets

of water ahead of them (see description of

rising sap in chapter 18), and 2) the suctional effect of rising atmospheric gases, which become specifically lighter with exposure to the Sun's heat.

At day's end this water column subsides with cooling, and overnight is in a state of rest, its contained carbones now replete with absorbed oxygen and other atmospheric gases. During the night, however, the carbone-rich water in the arm under the bundle of two capillaries becomes active. This may be due partially to its largely unsatisfied appetite for oxygen, whose supply has been limited by the fewer number of capillary tubes; also to the combined pres- sures of the night-cooled, therefore specifically heavier, atmospheric gases entering the now evacuated bundle of 4 capillaries; and to the marginally specifically heavier weight of the condensed gas-enriched, recently subsided water. Both of these exert pressure on the salt- water in the base of the U-tube, causing it to shift laterally. This in turn exerts an uplift pres- sure on the unoxygenated water in the opposite arm, causing the water to rise up the bundle of two capillaries.

This emulates the continuous temperature-, pressure- and suction-related pulsation, which is the hallmark of all natural fluid movement - water, blood and sap. These capillary tubes are very fine, i.e. their internal diameter is minute, in this case about 0.4mm internal diameter. In terms of plant anatomy, the bundle of 4 capil- laries represents the xylem tubelets. These gen- erally have a larger cross-sectional area than the phloem tubelets, which are represented by the bundle of 2 capillaries.

What is not explained in Viktor's description is whether both arms of the U-tube are posi- tioned parallel to the Sun's rays, or at rightangles, the 2-capillary bundle lying behind the 4-capillary bundle. Not explained either is whether both capillary bundles are to be pro- tected from light and heat. However, as this experiment is designed in part to demonstrate the ebb and flow of sap which occurs beneath the bark, it is desirable that the capillary tubes should be adequately shielded and insulated.

If the bundle of four capillary tubes is removed, then water emerges from the top of the U-tube leg, demonstrating the formation of natural springs. On the diagram, it can be seen that the two water levels on each side of the U-tube are not in communication, but remain independent of each other, representing another phenomenon in Nature inexplicable according to current theory.

This decrease in atmospheric density close to the ground during the day is also responsible for the slight diurnal fluctuation in the height of the groundwater table. Being specifically lighter, the atmosphere exerts less pressure and the groundwater rises in consequence. The weight of the atmosphere is thus a contributing factor to the height of the groundwater table and to the rate of flow of springs, which are known to deliver more water during the night than during the day.

Another experiment showing the action of true springs and one much simpler to carry out is described in Etidorpha (Aphrodite spelt back- wards), a book published by John Uri Lloyd in 1896. The book gives an account of the experi- ences of William Morgan, who was mysteriously abducted on the 12th of August 1826 which he related when he appeared to Llwellyn Drury some 30 years previous to the book's publication1. The book gives a number of interesting insights into many natural phe- nomena including water and its movement.

10: The Formation of Springs 133

This experiment consists of the interaction between salt and fresh water as a result of their different specific gravities. Water is the basis for all specific gravities and has the value of lg/cm3. Saltwater or seawater with a 4% salt content has a higher specific gravity of about 1.025g/cm3, depending on its temperature, thus making it 2.5% heavier than fresh water.

Fig. 10.4 depicts the experimental arrangement assembled by the author. It consists of two 4-litre glass bottles, one of which has had the bottom removed. This is turned upside down and fixed with a water-tight seal to the lower. Mixture between the two types of water is restricted by the placement of a cork where the two bottles are joined together. In the cen- tre of the cork there is a section of glass tube with a diameter marginally larger than the hooked capillary tube. Before insertion of the capillary tube the lower bottle is filled with fresh water. The capillary tube with an internal diameter of 0.4mm is then introduced, the bottom of the hooked section being about 15mm above the surface of the saltwater in the upper bottle when this is filled with saltwater. It is suggested that a strong saline solution be used to produce the best effects, since we are here concerned with a natural process at a very small scale. Almost immediately after filling with saltwater, the fresh water can be seen to rise up the capillary and, passing over the top of the hook, it begins to form droplets. These may not fall immediately, and initially the cap- illary may need to be tapped once or twice. After this the fresh water continues to drop due to the effect of the heavier weight of the saltwater in the upper vessel until such time as the two waters have mixed. Dropping then ceases.

This clearly demonstrates another aspect related to the formation of true springs and mountain springs. While we have seen above that the +4°C centre-stratum of the groundwa- ter body is compressed between two opposing pressures, the pressure resulting from the weight of the infiltrating rainwater is further enhanced by the solution of salts and other ele- ments as it descends. This gives the water additional mass, which in turn exerts a higher pressure on the centre-stratum than if the per- colating water were merely fresh water.

There are, however, two additional factors at work in the movement of springwater. These are physical in nature and not mechanical, although, as we have seen above, the mechani- cal forces of pressure are active as well. From chapter 5 we learned that in Viktor Schau-berger's view the Earth is a female entity and that all the energies and elements she secretes within her body, principally the car- bones, are also of feminine nature. The Sun and oxygen on the other hand are male and fertilising.

The first factor therefore relates to the chemical composition of the springwater itself. As result of the processes mentioned above, the +4°C centre-stratum water is virtually totally

10: The Formation of Springs 135

deficient in oxygen, but very high in carbonic acid and other carbones obtained by its passage through coal-bearing and other mineral strata. From this arises a powerful mutual attraction as the female fructigenic ethericities (non-physical energies) seek to unite with those of oxygen, the seminal or fertilising sub- stance. The uprising of springwater is therefore enhanced by this hunger, as it were, because in the process an energetic vacuity is created in the carbone-rich water which wants to be filled, giving the centre-stratum the impulse to move to wherever the oxygen is waiting. The second factor concerns the type of motion itself. The uprising of the springwater is greatly assisted by the actual way in which the nascent springwater moves and by the particular shape of the rising underground pas- sages through which it flows. The best example of this sinuous configuration can be seen in glaciers, where meltwater plunges down crevasses in the ice. Due to the motion of the falling water, these are sculptured into twisting, convoluting shapes; shapes, however, that are created by the water itself, reflecting the way in which water likes to move natu- rally. By turning these crevasses upside down so to speak, we then get some idea of the shape of the shafts in which springwater comes to the surface.

The form of movement these shafts induce is that of the cycloid-spiral-space-curve which, as mentioned in earlier chapters is responsible for the Earth's floating motion in space and is associated with the forces of levitation. Because of its incompressibility at +4°C, it is therefore the combined effect of these two additional factors of oxygen-hunger and the generation of levitational energies that permits springwater to overcome the forces of gravity and gush forth all year round and often in large quantities from the tops of mountains where, incidentally, they are also exposed to reduced atmospheric pressure. Although they lack oxygen, both mountain springs and true springs generally emerge into the light of day from dark clefts and shaded niches so as to avoid the direct light of the Sun, exposure to which may cause the spring to dry up. A case of this was when, one day on a high plateau in the mountains with his foresters, Viktor Schauberger passed by a ramshackle dome-like stone construction from which water, apparently from a spring, was flowing. Since it was very dilapidated and might have presented a danger to his employers when hunting, he ordered it to be demolished. Whereupon he was told that if this was done the spring would vanish.

Always of an inquiring turn of mind, Viktor said that it should still be dismantled, but very carefully with the place of each stone marked in case it had to be rebuilt. On another excur- sion about a week later, he noticed that the flow of water had ceased. The spring was dry. As sources of good water on this high plateau were infrequent and therefore important dur- ing time of hunting, he hurriedly summoned his foresters and game wardens and had the cupola carefully reconstructed as before. A few days later the spring began to flow again.

What happens to the water after it has emerged from the spring and how it flows on its gushing, gyrating, whorling path down into the valley will be mainly addressed in chapter

13. The way water moves naturally is of extreme importance for its inner health and vitality. According to Viktor Schauberger, so subtle are the factors here concerned that even the first two curves the water makes after leav- ing the spring can have an effect up to 10 kilometres downstream. Therefore if we wish to ensure the maintenance of these qualities in our rivers and the water we drink, then careful attention must be paid to what follows in sub- sequent chapters.

10.3 Energy from the Deep Ocean

his heading may appear slightly out of context here, but while the formation of true springs is still fresh in our minds, it would seem appropriate at this juncture to examine a method of generating unlimited amounts of virtually free energy directly from the deep ocean, since this can be achieved using the same principle. As a means of generating energy, it is not only wholly sustainable and non-polluting, but it will also render all other contemporary systems of power generation obsolete. All the highly complex machinery and mechanisms presently used for such purposes will be relegated to the scrap heap.

It will become clear from what follows that nuclear power, in particular is no longer any kind of economic option. It never was in the first place, except perhaps in the short-term. With all its vast associated costs and the ever- present and known perils of radiation leakage, the inescapable, immense costs of safe storage of fissionable material after decommissioning have never really been included in the eco- nomic equation. These costs have always been hushed up, because they will have to be borne by many generations to come.

Plutonium, one of the principle end-products of nuclear fission, has a half-life of 25,000 years. That is to say that after 25,000 years its level of radioactivity has been reduced to a half, but all the while during storage its lethal energies are gnawing away at their containers. After another 25,000 years the radioactivity will have been reduced to a quarter, and so on. 2,000 years is almost beyond human comprehension, let alone 25,000. Once the public at large has become aware of this other source of cheap, unlimited and totally environmentally friendly power, the nuclear lobby will be seen to be mouthing empty phrases in defence of its life-annihilating industry.

The principle upon which this new form of energy production is based is here set out clearly for all to see. This has been done to ensure that no individual and no large corpo- ration will ever be able to obtain a patent on it, which would enable them either to suppress it or to create a monopoly for themselves to the great detriment of the rest of humanity, which has often been the case in the past. Once a principle has been published it is no longer patentable and becomes the property of the general public and therefore freely available to all people. This principle and the processes associated with it are so simple that as Viktor Schauberger said:

Our energy technologists would abandon contemporary methods of generating electricity did they but know that this can be obtained directly from the deep sea by means of the simplest apparatus. These devices and instruments, which would lift the world off its hinges, however, would be rapidly superseded and find their way into museums, because mankind has no need to go to such lengths to obtain light, heat and other forms of energy in any desired quantity almost without effort or expense.2

It is a known fact that when deep-sea or abyssal fishes are brought up to the surface they burst open. This is generally attributed to the different construction of their skeletons, which are far less robust than those of their counterparts in surface waters around the coasts. It has long been assumed and explained from a purely mechanical point of view, that the rupture of their bodies is caused by the enormous reduction in pressure during their ascent to the surface, which they are unable to withstand. This is a serious, though under- standable misinterpretation of the true causes, however, whose origins lie in the physical dif- ferences between surface and abyssal waters. Dwelling as they do in waters with minimal oxygen content, the carbone-oxygen balance in the bodily tissues and the blood of these crea- tures is weighted very much in the carbone's favour. Moreover, such seawater as they do contain is equally deficient in oxygen. Therefore, like the growth of carbone-rich springwater exposed to atmospheric oxygen, the carbones in the bodies of these fish have a similar affinity and hunger for oxygen, whose absorption, as they are raised from the deep, causes their tissues to explode.

As was explained in the formation of true springs, the +4°C water in the centre-stratum of the groundwater table is largely deficient in male, fertilising oxygen due to the latter's con- sumption by living organisms, tree roots and so on, but does contain a high concentration of female, fructigenic carbones. Incompressible at +4°C and subject to intense pressures from above and below, this oxygen-starved water hungry for male essences, is partially squeezed and partially lifted to the highest mountain peaks.

In fig. 10.5 it can be seen that the same physical conditions inhere at great depths in the sea, the only difference here being that the oxygen has been consumed by millions of fish and other aquatic life-forms. According to Viktor Schauberger, here the +4°C saltwater centre-stratum may often be fresh due to the

expulsion of salts with cooling under the exclusion of light, heat and air. Moreover, due to its enormous density, it is not possible for such abyssal water to absorb any gases through processes of diffusion or convection. But most importantly, and this is the crucial factor, there is no avenue of escape, no natu- rally formed rising shafts for the egress of the highly compressed +4°C water.

Therefore by lowering a suitably designed length of pipe to the appropriate depth, this oxygen hungry water is provided with a means of rising to the surface. The water will rise of its own accord as it does in mountain springs. Its levitational, vortical movement will initially be induced by a dual-function strainer, whose tangentially arranged inflow provides the impulse for the creation of a vortex while at the same time preventing the entry of aquatic creatures. The rising pipe itself will be a smaller version of the double-spiral pipe equipped with vortex-inducing vanes, which is described in chapter 14 on water supply.

At a certain depth to be determined empirically as shown in the larger detail in fig. 10.5, atmospheric oxygen, delivered through a larger pipe forming an outer jacket, is diffused into the oxygen-deficient water by means of a one-way filter consisting of a substance whose physical composition permits the passage of the smaller oxygen molecule, but not that of the larger water molecule. In contact with this diffusive filter, the rising water rapidly absorbs the oxygen, warms slightly and begins to expand, to increase its volume in the same way as occurred with the spring at Montenegro.

According to Viktor Schauberger this expan- sion can be significantly enhanced with the addition of a few drops of a highly complex carbone, such as oil. It is this powerfully expan- sive phenomenon which can be very simply exploited and converted to the mechanical energy required to drive electric generators. This should not be done with conventional cen- trifugal impellers, however, because they destroy both the structure and the quality of the water. Rather, centripetal impellers should be used of a design similar to that shown in large scale detail in fig. 10.5, which in this case was taken from Viktor Schauberger's patent for an air turbine3 and which improves the quality of the medium used to drive it.

While the basic principle is assured, there are some precautionary measures that should be taken initially to safeguard the investment costs and to ensure the proper functioning of the arrangement. Despite what has been stated above, since this system of power generation has so far never been attempted, it may be nec- essary to use a conventional pump to initiate flow and also to install a series of non-return valves to ensure that any developing expansion is directed upwards and not downwards against the uprising water. While the system may pulsate of its own accord, varying in flow between night and day, this is not a problem, since pulsation is the vibrant essence of life.

The actual investment costs of this new systern would be almost nothing compared to the massive expense presently required for nuclear reprocessing plants and power stations. Furthermore, apart from the actual energy pro- duced, the only end-product of this process is ecologically harmless oxygenated seawater which, after all is what is everywhere present in the upper strata of the oceans. All that needs to be done therefore is to make a beginning, for with this method humanity will be provided with unlimited electricity until yet another higher form of energy can be produced.

Notes

1. Etidorpha, now published by Health Research, Box 2. Our Senseless Toil, Part II, p.10. 70, Mokelumne Hill, CA 95245, USA. 3. Austrian Patent No.145141,10 April 1936.

11 FLOATING STONES AND THE STATIONARY TROUT

11.1 Floating Stones

As a living, natural organism, water is formed and functions according to Nature's laws and geometry, and inhibits none of the elements of the straight line, circle and point, the basis of modern mechanical and technological constructs, reflecting Nature's principal constant, namely that of continuous change and transformation, the vortex epitomises this form of open, fluid and flexible motion. Through his study of the vortices occurring naturally in flowing water and in the air in the form of cyclones and tornadoes, Viktor Schauberger developed his the- ories of Implosion. It was through the research and development of these theories that he was able to produce drinking water of mountain-spring quality and generate considerable ener- gies in and with water and air. What is the natural movement of water and what is the function of the vortex? In relation to all that has been discussed previously in terms of forms, shapes and so on, it can be seen that the expression or manifestation of natural energies is always in curves and vortices, but never in a straight linear fashion. In healthy, naturally flowing water these curvilinear movements are principally expressed as longitudinal vortices running parallel to the direc- tion of flow, though minor transverse eddies do form in the area adjacent to the river banks. Due to the centripetal action of these longi- tudinal vortices, in which material in the form of water is drawn inwards, the densest water is always to be found at the centre. Since water cannot actually become denser unless it is cooled, then ipso facto it is the central core that contains the coldest and densest water. The maintenance of low temperatures is a prereq- uisite for the continuing health and vitality of all waterways.

When fresh, lively water gushes forth from a shaded spring in the high forest, it cascades down the side of the mountain, often with torrential flows, but never overflows its banks. In the course of its descent it twists and turns, first to the right and then to the left as it whorls about one rock after another. Upon these rocks and on those lying on the bed of this crystal clear, cold water, undisturbed by human hand, the tips of the mosses growing there behave very peculiarly according to our conventional minds.

In his various writings Viktor Schauberger often stated that two energy streams are active simultaneously in healthily flowing water, but in opposite directions. As discussed previously there are always two processes associ- ated with any form of natural energetic motion, which are always in a state of semi-opposition and at the same time are complementary. On the one hand, there is the gravitational movement of water from the spring down to the sea and, on the other, its levitational counterpart flowing from the sea right up to the source; in other words, a counter movement of energy. Not being aware that at least two forms of opposing, but complementary energy are active in all natural

139

phenomena, nor having seen this phenomenon for ourselves, we would imagine that the moss-tips would bend downstream due to the pressure of the fast-flowing current.

Astonishingly, the opposite is the case as was observed on many occasions by Viktor Schauberger, who regarded it as a reliable indicator of the state of health of a given stream, because both the downstream gravitational flow of matter and the upstream, levitational flow of energy were in the proper state of bal- ance. Contrary to expectation, and despite the fact that at +4°C this water is at its most dense, the moss-tips actually point upstream against the current. This is quite inexplicable according to current hydraulic doctrine, which only treats water mechanically as an inert substance with no perception of its other physical or energetic characteristics.

However, if through deforestation this stream is exposed to the direct light of the Sun, then the situation soon changes markedly. The water becomes warmer, specifically less dense and, lo and behold, the moss-tips point downstream! They do so because the water's intrinsic ener- gies have been depleted by the heat and the counterflow of bio-magnetic energy from the mouth of the stream up to its source has been weakened. The moss-tips therefore act like the needle on a dial faithfully recording the health condition of the stream in which they reside. This phenomenon is now almost impossible to find, because very few mountain streams have escaped the marauding hand of humankind.

But this was by no means Viktor's only encounter with the bio-magnetic energies inherent in healthy water. As a young forest warden in a large area of private forest in the early 1900s, Viktor Schauberger was con- stantly on the move about the forest in his care. During these years, when hunting was common practice, on one occasion while off-duty he went after a particularly magnificent chamois buck that he knew to frequent a certain area of the forest. It was a very bright, full moonlit night in the middle of winter. Having found the buck, he followed it to the edge of a very deep ravine, where he lost track of it. Keeping very still he waited for some indica- tion of its whereabouts. Noticing a slight fall of snow on the edge of the ravine, he espied the buck standing behind a small bush and, despite the danger of it falling into the ravine if shot, his hunting spirit got the upper hand and he fired at it.

His worst expectations were realised and the buck plunged into the ravine, hitting the bottom far below with a dull thud. Anxious to re- cover the much-prized horns and beard, he cast about for some way down. Losing his footing, he slid down the path of an avalanche and lan- ded on a heap of snow at the bottom. Delighted to discover that the horns and beard had not been damaged, he removed them, afterwards going over to a pool below a waterfall, which was surrounded by ice to wash his hands.

Due to the crystal clarity of the water and the bright light of the full Moon, as he was looking down into it he became aware of a movement several metres below. Too heavy to float and colloquially called 'sinkers', a number of green logs were engaged in a strange dance. The butt of one log would suddenly rise up, move across another and then return to its former position. Then another would do the same. Totally enthralled, Viktor could not take his eyes off this uncanny phenomenon for a second. Spending several hours, wholly oblivious to the cold and with horns and beard for- gotten, he stared down into the water.

More weird and wonderful happenings unfolded as some of the stones too began this rhythmical gavotte. Suddenly, one of them began to gyrate slowly along the bottom and, much to his astonishment, it gradually rose to the surface and stayed there, surrounded by a halo of ice. Thirteen more stones followed shortly thereafter. Despite his amazement at this spectacle, he still had enough presence of mind to notice that all the stones that rose to the surface were egg-shaped, having been rolled around in the bowl at the bottom of the waterfall for some considerable time. Those stones with rough and ragged edges were left lying on the bottom.

In reflecting upon this many years later Viktor came to realise that it was the combined effect of the cold, which enhanced the bio-magnetic levitational energies, and the metalliferous composition of the stones them- selves that was responsible for this remark- able occurrence. Here the term metalliferous

11: Floating Stones and the Stationary Trout 141

essentially refers to silica, the name for silicon dioxide (SiO2) which is abundant in the Earth's crust as quartz, rock crystal, flint, in granite, sandstone etc, and silicates which are oxides of various metals such as magnesium, calcium and aluminium. As will be shown later, these metalliferous stones reinforce the energies in flowing water. The fact that the stones actually stayed on the surface is due to another phenomenon. Even though its temperature may be well below the freezing point of 0°C, the water flowing in such streams in winter does not freeze as long as it is moving. When this very cold water of say -3°C or -5°C falls to the bot- tom of the pool below a waterfall, it creates a certain vortical movement. At the same time, its motion having been decelerated in the process, it has a tendency to crystallise and does so on all surfaces of the floating stones, bringing them up to the surface. Here more ice forms and holds the stones in suspension. As a result of this encounter with the float- ing stones, Viktor Schauberger began to realise that there were other forms which could enhance the movement of water, the egg being one of the most important, since eggs or egg-shaped bodies would appear to have a certain connection with vortical motion. A simple experiment gives an idea of what is here involved. So as to make the experiment as fair as pos- sible and to be able to compare the action of an egg-shaped body with that of another, a sphere - for example, a ping-pong ball - is filled with saline solution weighing slightly more than the specific weight of the contents of the egg, preferably a bantam's egg with similar surface area, in order to offset the lighter specific weight of the plastic shell vis-a- vis that of the heavier egg-shell. As the water in the cylindrical measuring jar (fig. 11.1) is stirred with a rod, the ping-pong ball just wobbles about at the bottom. It exhibits no quick tendency to rise, but will eventually do so if the stirring is vigorous enough. However, when an egg, which has a natural tendency to spin on its longitudinal axis, is used instead, it rises very quickly and will stay at the top of the jar for as long as the stirring action is maintained, which once the egg has been raised can be considerably slowed. It could therefore be mooted that a sphere, which is not a natural form, is not particularly attuned to vortical motion.

11.2 The Stationary Trout

a result of the successful operation of the Aseveral log-flumes Viktor Schauberger built in the late 1920s (to be described later), whose function was incomprehensible to hydraulic experts and could not be explained by conventional concepts, the then Austrian government became very interested in his the- ories and their practical implementation, since they might be of benefit to the country as a whole. It was therefore decided to commission Prof. Philipp Forchheimer, one of the world's foremost but recently retired hydrologists, to observe Viktor Schauberger's activities and report on them. He was to try to understand the processes, which appeared to function flawlessly, but for which there were no accepted theories.

At first Viktor Schauberger was rather irritated at having this man trotting around after him, looking over his shoulders as it were. Forchheimer, however, was always very discreet, never asking trivial questions and eventually they became firm friends, Forch- heixner ultimately enabling the publication of Viktor's treatise on water in the Austrian hydrological journal "Die Wasserwirtschaft".

During their period together, and because of Forchheimer's sincere interest, Viktor was always trying to find practical examples to teach him about the substance of water, its intrinsic nature and the peculiar phenomena under which the energies in water evolve. One day he arranged a demonstration for Forchheimer and, taking him up to a certain part of the forest, they came upon a fast-flowing mountain stream which Viktor knew to contain trout. Right in the middle of this rushing cold water at the point where the flow was fastest, Schauberger pointed to the motionless stance of a so-called 'stationary trout'. The trout was standing totally still or very nearly so, apparently managing to maintain its station effortlessly with just an occa- sional flick of its fins.

Just holding a stick over it, or even the shadow of the stick, was enough to make the trout dart upstream. The direction of escape was never downstream, but it always accelerated upstream. Very odd, because one would normally consider movement downstream to be the fastest avenue of escape, since movement would be with the current. But not so, the movement was always upstream against the current. Once things had settled down and danger had passed, the trout would return to its former station. Viktor asked Forchheimer to explain why the trout fled upstream instead of downstream and how it was able to do this. Unable to answer, Viktor then responded mischievously, "Well, Professor, it is because it never had any academic training! Were you in this gushing stream, you would be swept away!"

The process by which the trout stays motionless in flowing water is as follows: The trout always seeks out that part of the water- body, that part of the current flow where the water is densest and coldest, and the longitudinal vortex most intense. Here a factor discovered by Viktor Schauberger plays a very important role, namely that the forward velocity of every particle of water is associated with a specific temperature. If it exceeds this critical velocity then turbulence results. Because of its bodily form, as each filament of water passes around the trout it accelerates and in doing so exceeds the above critical velocity relative to specific temperature.

In other words, due to being deflected by the mass of the trout's body and depending on its proximity to the same, in varying degrees, each water-filament is caused to move too fast (fig. 11.2). In consequence a series of vortices are created along the trout's flanks which have a component of motion in a direction opposite to the current. The combined action of these counter movements in direct contact with the hindparts of the trout's body provides the counterthrust against the downward flow of water. A zone of negative pressure or negative thrust is created within the length of the trout's body. This negative pressure couteracts the positive pressure of the water flow and the trout rests within the zone of neutral pressure its body has created.

If the trout wants to accelerate upstream, it starts to work its gills. The flapping of the gills intensifies the vortices along its flanks, which makes the ensuing upstream thrust greater than the downward pressure. The faster it flaps its gills, the faster it moves against the current, and when its gills are going at 'full bore', so to speak, it moves upstream like a streak of lightning. The increased expulsion of oxygen-deficient, CO2-rich and therefore car-bone-rich water from the faster-functioning

11: Floating Stones and the Stationary Trout 143

gills also has an energising effect. The free dis- solved oxygen in the stream water is almost instaneously absorbed by the expelled oxy-gen-hungry carbones causing the expansion of the water adjacent to the trout's body so that, in consort with the vortical effects and the lev- itational energies, the trout is squeezed forwards like a bar of slippery soap. Considering the trout's behaviour, it is known there are some days when the fish are 'biting', as as anglers say. On other days, they seem to ignore the hook altogether. The reason for this is because the water temperature is perfect, the food supply is perfect and the trout just likes to sit there and wait for all its food to float directly into its jaws. All that is necessary to alter this serene situation is a very slight change in external temperature, which also affects the temperature of the water. The water then begins to become more turbulent. As a result of the increased turbulence, the trout's food, which normally flows down the cold central axis of the current directly into the trout's mouth, is diverted from its normal path and migrates towards the sides of the stream or river. The trout becomes agitated and casts about, hunting for its food, no doubt grumbling to itself, 'Where is my food? It's disgraceful! I actually have to work to get it!' Finally, in desperation, it jumps about, reck- lessly biting at anything which in any way resembles its food, because it has by this time become extremely hungry and careless, falling easy prey to the angler's hook. So before a thunderstorm or when the weather suddenly becomes warm, the fish are more likely to bite than when the weather is fairly even. Fish also tend to rise to bait in the evening because, by the end of the day, the water has warmed to a certain degree and the flow has thus become slightly more turbulent, partially disrupting the normal food supply.

On this day Viktor Schauberger had also arranged that his foresters build a fire and place a large cauldron containing 100 litres of water over it to heat up. All this occurred about 150 metres upstream from where the stationary trout was resting. Once the water

Fig. 11.2 The stationary trout The trout normally swims in the middle of the central current vortex, where the water is densest and coldest. Due to the volume of its body, the individual current filaments are displaced and compressed. This causes their acceleration and eventually their critical velocities are exceeded, which results in the formation of vortices (counter-currents) along the rear part of the body. These vortices act counter to the direction of the current and provide the counter-thrust required by the trout to remain stationary in this fast flowing water. If it needs to accelerate upstream, then it flaps its gills. creating a further vortex train along its flanks, thus increasing the counter-thrust upstream. The more rapid the gill-movements, the faster the trout moves upwards against the current.

was hot enough, Viktor Schauberger gave the signal to pour it into the stream, while he and Forchheimer continued to observe the trout's behaviour very closely. As soon as the hot water hit the stream, the trout started to flail its tail, moving backwards all the while as it struggled to maintain its station. Something drastic had happened to the water and its pattern of energy, which normally aided the trout in the maintenance of its position. The upward flow of levitational energy had been totally disrupted by the introduction of the hot water 150m above. The trout was no longer able to stay where it was in the fast flow without effort, as was the case before.

Missing was the energy that the trout also exploits to progress upstream and to make its famous leaps, which it must do periodically in order to reach the spawning grounds, which are always to be found in the zone of high- quality water near the spring. When the hot water was introduced, this counter-movement of energy was cut. The energy was suddenly dissipated and became chaotic. All structure in terms of the natural thermal stratification of the water was lost and the regularity of the longitudinal vortex with its cold core, essential for the trout motionless stance, had been destroyed. All its valiant efforts to maintain station were in vain and it was swept downstream. Over a certain period of time the counter-flow of energy was slowly restored through the continuing descent of cold water and eventually the trout was able to return to its former position.

On another occasion, Viktor pointed out a stone in the middle of a stream and asked Forchheimer whether he thought the water would be hotter or colder after flowing past it. The Professor scratched his head and thinking to himself, "Hmm, friction; friction produces heat", answered "Hotter!" Schauberger then suggested he measure it to confirm his opin- ion, stating, however, that he thought Forch- heimer's answer was incorrect. Equipped with his accurate thermometers and first furling up his trousers, the Professor entered the water. Viktor's son, Walter, who at the time was about 16 years old, was requested to hold onto the spindly professor's belt, lest he lose his footing on the slippery stones and be swept away by the torrent. Forchheimer carefully measured the water temperature both above and below the stone and was very surprised to find there was a difference of about 2/10ths of a degree Celsius -colder on the downstream side of the stone. After a number of measure- ments were made later on, Forchheimer found that the cooling at these points varied from 0.1°C to 0.4°C.

When moving naturally, water develops a series of vortices and eddies which brake its otherwise unimpeded forward movement and at the same time cool it. The steadiness of flow in naturally flowing river systems is closely associated with this vortical motion, which is due to the turbulence arising through the exceeding of the critical velocity relative to water temperature as mentioned previously. Such water will never accelerate continuously and rush headlong down a given gradient but, depending on its temperature and the type of temperature gradient in force, it will fairly quickly develop vortices and thereby slow its rate of forward flow, for the simple reason that these vortices represent the application of an automatic brake by creating a counter movement in an upstream direction, a phenomenon that will be explained in the following chapter.

11.3 Fishes from Eggs

Another interesting aspect about the trout in that the form of its body arises from the combination of three egg-shapes, two elon- gated in the form of seeds or grain and the other in the form of an egg (fig. 11.3), all of which can be precisely calculated with the hyperbolic mathematical system devised by Walter Schauberger. We are therefore concerned with a complex egg-form. As was demonstrated in the measuring jar, the egg- shape does seem to have a certain affinity for vortical motion and it is very possible that the resistance of this form to forward motion, or any kind of pressure, is much less than it would be in the case of a cylindrical or an elliptical system.

Here we need briefly to address Walter Schauberger's Pythagoras-Kepler System and its associated mathematics, which are are devel-

11: Floating Stones and the Stationary Trout 145

The form of most fishes consists of three interacting egg-shapes. Because an egg-shape is of constantly changing, non-euclidean curvature, it is conducive to a reduction in friction and the generation of counter-thrusting vortices, which, if intensified sufficiently, result in accelerated forward movement.

oped from the Pythagorean concepts of har- monics derived from the Monochord, a single resonating string, and the planetary motion and harmonies of Johannes Kepler. Through the whole-numbered division of the length of its string, i.e. by 2, 3, 4, 5, etc., certain musi- cally narmonic intervals can be obtained from the Monochord which, in their numerical ratios of string length to pitch, can be inter- preted as reciprocities.